The Role of Government Agencies in Urban Housing Delivery Insufficient Political Will and Ineffective Housing Administration in Lagos Metropolis - Case Study of Ajegunle, Lagos

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ABSTRACT
There is a continuous exacerbation of environmental problems in big cities of today’s world, thereby, diminishing the quality of life in them. Of particular concern is the fact that today’s megacities are evolving in the developing world without corresponding growth in the economy, infrastructure and other human development indices. As urban population continues to grow in these cities of the Global South, governing institutions are usually unable to keep pace with their social responsibilities, thus, making the issue of urban governance very critical. This is because effective and efficient urban governance is highly essential for the creation, strengthening and sustenance of governing institutions.

Lagos, a mega-city of over 15.45 million people and the most populous metropolitan area on the African continent epitomizes the fundamental grave characteristics of the emerging megacities of the Global South, thereby, constituting an apt choice in understanding the emerging megacities of the next generation. Two out of every three Lagos residents live in slums and de-humanizing physical and social conditions. Many of them sleep, work, eat and cook under highway bridges, at the mercy of weather elements.

This research, therefore, evaluated urban governance through housing administration in Africa’s largest megacity. It examines the extent of housing problems in the city, the causal factors and the culpability of government agencies statutorily responsible for the provision, control and management of housing development in Lagos - the tenth largest city in the world. A representative geographic part of the city which manifests classic characteristics of slum life, listed by Mike Davis as the largest slum in Africa and the 6th largest in the world – Ajegunle - was adopted for case study. The research design combined rigorous literature search (desk research) with quantitative and, especially, qualitative approaches to data collection. The qualitative approach was more intensely adopted because government officials often respond to enquiries with ‘official answers and data’ which may not be reliable and the study had to rely on keen observation of physical traces, social interaction and personal investigation. The cross-sectional research method was adopted. Information was solicited from house-owners, building industry professionals, sociologists and officials of relevant government agencies, through research tools like questionnaires, interviews, focused group discussions and personal observations.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Pagei
Abstract (German)iv
Statement of Originalityvii
Quotationsviii
Abstractix
Dedicationxi
Acknowledgementxi
Table of Contentsxiii
List of Tablesxviii
List of Figuresxxii
List of Platesxxiv
Terms and Abbreviationsxxvi
Reading Guidance/Format of the Research Reportxxix

PART I
1.0   INTRODUCTION AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK2
1.1  Introduction2
1.2  Theoretical Framework13
1.2.1Conflict Theory in Housing…………………………………………………………….….....15 
1.2.2Theory of Political Ecology..…………………………………………………………….…...22 
1.2.3Exit, Voice and Loyalty in the Slum ………………………………………………….…...26 
1.2.4Rationalizing the Theories/General Overview ..……………………………….…...34 

2.0   HOUSING AND ITS MULTI-DIMENSIONAL LINKAGES37
2.1   Evolution and Development of Housing37
2.1.1  Impact of the Industrial Revolution on Housing Development ………….…. 39
2.2   Slum and its Global Reality41
2.3   Housing Linkages to the Socio-Economic Environment45
2.3.1   Housing and Income/Employment Generation….…………………………………45
2.3.2   Housing and Poverty …………………………………………………………………………..47
2.3.3Housing and Health……………………………………………………………………………47 
2.3.4Housing and Education………………………………………………………………………49 
2.3.5Housing and Other Opportunities……………………………………………………….50 
2.4Dynamics of Housing Components………………………………………………………………50 
2.4.1Housing and Government Policies…………………………………………………………51 
2.4.2Housing and Finance…………………………………………………………………………….52 
2.4.3Land…………………………………………………………………………………………………....54 
2.4.4Housing and Building Materials…………………………………………………………….54 
2.4.5Housing and Labour ………………………………………………………………………….55 
2.4.6Housing and Construction Technology………………………………………………….60 
2.5Housing and Urban Governance ………………………………………………………………….63 
2.6Housing Problems in Urban Nigeria ..…………………………………………………………..68 
2.6.1Quantitative Shortage…………………………………………………………………………..70 
2.6.2Qualitative Shortage…………………………………………………………………………….70 
2.7Causes of Housing Shortages ……………………………………………………………………….71 
2.7.1Heavy Rural-Urban Migration……………………………………………………………….71 
2.7.2Defective Housing Policies and Poor Implementation…………………………….72 
2.7.3Difficulty of Accessibility to Mortgage Facilities and  Land Titles………………………………………………………………………………………….72 
2.7.4 Heavy dependence on Foreign Building Materials and other Housing Inputs…….……………………………………………………………... 74
2.7.5Use of Quacks for Professional Services………………………………………………..74 
2.7.6Problems of cost recovery……………………………………………………………………74 
2.7.7Poor Infrastructural Facilities……………………………………………………………….74 
2.7.8Economic problems…………………………………………………………………………….75 
2.8Housing Policy Development in Nigeria……………………………………………………….75 
2.8.1Previous Housing Policies in Nigeria……………………………………………………..77 
2.9Research Gaps……………………………………………………………………………………………82 

3.0RESEARCH PROBLEMS, QUESTIONS AND JUSTIFICATION OF STUDY………………………………………………………………..85
3.1Problem Statement…………………………………………………………………………………85
3.2   Aim of Research89
3.3   Objectives of Research89
3.4   Research Main Question89
3.5   Secondary Research Questions90
3.6   Hypotheses of Research90
3.7   Methodology of Research91
3.8   Scope of the study91
3.9   Limitations of Study92
3.10  Relevance of Study92
3.11 Audience of Study93

4.0   METHODOLOGY OF RESEARCH94
4.1   Sources of Data94
4.2   Research Design95
4.3   Sampling Techniques96

PART II
5.0   STUDY AREA103
5.1Lagos Metropolitan Area ………………………………………………………………………….104 
5.1.1Historical Background ………………………………………………………………….…...106 
5.1.2Geography……………………………………………………………………………………..…..108 
5.1.3Demography …………… ………………………………………………………………….…... 109 
5.1.4Government and Administration…………………………………………………….…. 114 
5.1.5Economy …………………. ………………………………………………………………….….. 116 
5.1.6Housing …………………... ……………………………………………………………………... 117 
5.1.7Transportation ………... ……………………………………………………………………... 116 
5.1.8Water and Sanitation .. ……………………………………………………………………... 119 
5.1.9Poverty Profile ………….……………………………………………………………………... 121 
5.2   Ajegunle in Ajeromi-Ifelodun Local Government Area122
 
6.0   FIELD DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS130
6.1   Data Presentation and Inferences..130
6.1.1Questionnaire I; Landlords………………………………………………………………….130 
6.1.2Questionnaire II; Housing Sector Professionals …………………………………..142 
6.1.3Interview with Staff of Statutory housing Agencies………………………………156 
6.2   Overview of the Chapter/Discussion of Findings160

7.0   COMPARATIVE HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS IN LAGOS: SLUM AND UPSCALE NEIGHBORHOODS161
7.1   Observed Housing Inequalities in Lagos164
7.1.1  Acquisition of Houses – Rental or Ownership166
7.1.2Neighborhood Location and Quality of Infrastructure…………………………..170 
7.2Comparative Housing Characteristics of Ajegunle and Its Adjoining Upscale Neighborhoods …………………………………...…………………179
7.3High Rent in Lagos and Linkage to Corrupt practices ..……………………………...186 
7.4The Incumbent Administration and Low-Costing Housing ..…………………….. 192 
7.5Overview of the Chapter ...……………………………………………………………………....195 

8.0HOUSING AND LIVING CONDITIONS AT AJEGUNLE AND OTHER SLUMS OF LAGOS.……………………………………………………………….198
8.1The Slums of Lagos………………………………………………………………………………….198 
8.1.1Origin and Proliferation of Lagos Slums…………………………………………….200 
8.2Social and Health Challenges of Housing in Lagos Slums and at Ajegunle …………………………………………………………………….204 
8.3Overview of the Chapter…………………………………………………………………………..213 

9.0GOVERNMENT AGENCIES AND THEIR ROLE IN HOUSING DEVELOPMENT IN LAGOS AND AT AJEGUNLE216
9.1   Housing Agencies and the Housing Mis-match in Lagos218
9.2   Structure, Administration and Evaluation of Housing Institutions in Lagos221
9.2.1   Lagos Executive Development Board (LEDB) - 1928222
9.2.2Lagos Planning Authority (LPA) - 1946……………………………………………….. 224 
9.2.3Ikeja Area Planning Authority (IAPA) - 1956 ...………………………………..........226 
9.2.4Lagos State Development and Property Corporation (LSDPC) – 1972 ………………………………..………………………........ 227
9.2.5The Federal Housing Authority of Nigeria (FHA) – 1973 ……………………… 229 
9.2.6Lagos Building Investment Company Limited (LBICL) – 1980 …………... ….231 
9.2.7Ministry of Housing – 1999 ..…………………………………………………………... …..232 
9.2.8Ministry of Physical Planning and Urban Development (MPP&UD) – 2003 ……………………………...…………………….... ..234
9.2.9  Lagos Metropolitan Development and Governance Project (LMDGP) – 2006 ……………………………………..…………………………...236
9.3   Forced Eviction as Anti-Slum Strategy of Lagos’ Governments238
9.4   Corruption and the Housing Outcome in Lagos241
9.5   Overall Assessment of the housing Institutions in Lagos State247
9.6   Overview of the Chapter251


PART III
10.0  SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS257
10.1  Summary257
10.2  Validation of Hypotheses259
10.3  Implications for Theoretical Discourse260
10.4  Conclusion263
10.5  Recommendations265
10.6  Suggestion for Further Research271
11.0  REFERENCES272
Appendices299
Curriculum Vitae354


Reading Guidance/Format of the Research Report
The dissertation opens with poignant and imperative quotes from a world-renowned institution (WHO) and a highly recognized global leadership figure on the importance of effective urban governance, through strong statutory institutions, in contemporary urbanizing world. The quotes also emphasize the particular case of the under-developed countries of Africa, in which the need for the building of strong institutions has become critical. This underscores the general theme of this dissertation, which is, the role of statutory institutions in urban housing governance.

The treatise is segmented into three primary parts, that is, Parts I, II and III. Part I comprises introduction, theoretical framework, research questions and the research methodology, Part II presents comprehensive information on the study area and the research findings; both from primary and secondary sources, including the presentation and analysis of data from questionnaires and interviews, while Part III closes the dissertation with inferences from the findings, answers to research questions, conclusion and recommendations.

The first of the ten chapters of the dissertation introduces the research theme, stressing the importance of housing in human societies. It discusses the vicious cycle of housing poverty and alludes, in brief, to the multi-dimensional linkages of housing, elucidating with several figures. It also introduces the linkage between housing outcome and urban governance through the statutory administration of housing by government institutions. The discussion of relevant theories in the chapter establishes theoretical framework for the research.

An extensive review of the literature on the research theme was undertaken in the second chapter, covering issues of urban governance, housing linkages, slum proliferation in global context, housing institutions, housing development in Nigeria and Lagos, in particular, and the previous efforts of governments at various levels to solve the housing problems. The chapter ends with the presentation of the research gaps revealed in the literature review. Following an analysis of the gaps, an important breach in knowledge was identified and adopted for this research.

The research problem was fully articulated in chapter three, thereby, establishing a justification for the study. The relevance of the study to the planning profession in contemporary time, the planning world in general and to policy makers was also established. The audience of study was also identified in the chapter. The scope and limitations of the study were also delineated while the aim and objectives of research were carefully crafted. The research questions and hypotheses of study were also formulated in this fundamental and very vital chapter.

Chapter four discusses the methodology of the research, stating the sources of data gathered, which include both primary and secondary sources. The chapter also attempts to justify the research methods and designs adopted. It also elucidates on the research design approach which encompasses both qualitative and quantitative methods, although, the emphasis was on the former. The questionnaire design and the structure of interviews were also discussed.

An exposition on the study area - Lagos and Ajegunle neighbourhood, in particular - is the target of the fifth chapter. The incredible socio-economic statistics of Lagos, the 10th most populous city on earth and the fourth densest in the world, after Mumbai, Kolkata and Karachi, respectively, were discussed in this chapter. The geography of Lagos was also discussed and the enormous challenges confronting the city were examined. The geography and socio-political status of Ajegunle neighbourhood, which is the specific section of Lagos, adopted as case study were also introduced.

Chapter six presents and analyzes the field data obtained from the questionnaire administration, interviews and focused group discussions. Inferences confirming the dire state of housing in the study area and unfavorable perception of government and its agencies were drawn, based on the data. Chapters seven and eight present findings from extensive literature search, personal observations and focus group discussions. Chapter seven examines the housing situation in Lagos megacity, in general, focusing on a comparative analysis of the slum and upscale areas, thereby underscoring the inequality in the housing situation. Chapter eight, on the other hand, focuses on Ajegunle, in particular, establishing the exclusion of the neighborhood and its residents from access to decent housing and infrastructure. The physical observations were supported with ample photographs. These two chapters provide valuable insight into the status-quo and presents an historical review of the trend, while identifying contemporary efforts by government and the private sector in addressing the issue of housing in Lagos megacity.

In chapter nine, relevant institutions of government that are responsible for housing administration and management were examined and evaluated vis-a-vis their successes and failures, in juxtaposition with their specific stated goals, objectives and statutory responsibilities. Attempt was made to identify the reasons for the status-quo, chronicling the effects and implications of the historical trend in the activities of these institutions/agencies on the housing outcome of the city.

The dissertation concludes in chapter ten by presenting the salient findings from the research and the relevance of these various factors in the present odious outcome of housing in Lagos metropolis. The implications of the research findings were presented in this chapter, while juxtaposing the findings from the desk research with the results obtained from the field studies. These data were carefully streamlined and harmonized to obtain a clear picture of the situation, thereby, proffering relevant answers to the research questions. The chapter closes with recommendations for addressing the malady in the statutory housing institutions/agencies of Lagos State, with the aim of halting and reversing the ongoing decay in the housing sector of the megacity. This is expected to constitute an important step towards the improvement of the state of housing in the megacity, thus, moving the world’s sixth most populated megacity, and the world in general, closer to the attainment of Target 11 of the Millennium Development Goal No. 7, thereby, making the world a better place.

Author Information
Ade-Kunle Ifesanya
Institute for European Urban Studies
Faculty of Architecture
Bauhaus University Weimar, Germany
May, 2012

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APA

Ugwu, A. (2018). The Role of Government Agencies in Urban Housing Delivery Insufficient Political Will and Ineffective Housing Administration in Lagos Metropolis - Case Study of Ajegunle, Lagos. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/the-role-of-government-agencies-in-urban-housing-delivery-insufficient-political-will-and-ineffective-housing-administration-in-lagos-metropolis-case-study-of-ajegunle-lagos-764

MLA 8th

Ugwu, Anderson "The Role of Government Agencies in Urban Housing Delivery Insufficient Political Will and Ineffective Housing Administration in Lagos Metropolis - Case Study of Ajegunle, Lagos" Afribary. Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/the-role-of-government-agencies-in-urban-housing-delivery-insufficient-political-will-and-ineffective-housing-administration-in-lagos-metropolis-case-study-of-ajegunle-lagos-764. Accessed 08 Dec. 2022.

MLA7

Ugwu, Anderson . "The Role of Government Agencies in Urban Housing Delivery Insufficient Political Will and Ineffective Housing Administration in Lagos Metropolis - Case Study of Ajegunle, Lagos". Afribary, Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018. Web. 08 Dec. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/the-role-of-government-agencies-in-urban-housing-delivery-insufficient-political-will-and-ineffective-housing-administration-in-lagos-metropolis-case-study-of-ajegunle-lagos-764 >.

Chicago

Ugwu, Anderson . "The Role of Government Agencies in Urban Housing Delivery Insufficient Political Will and Ineffective Housing Administration in Lagos Metropolis - Case Study of Ajegunle, Lagos" Afribary (2018). Accessed December 08, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/the-role-of-government-agencies-in-urban-housing-delivery-insufficient-political-will-and-ineffective-housing-administration-in-lagos-metropolis-case-study-of-ajegunle-lagos-764