The Spillover Effect of Somalia’s Internal Conflict on Kenya’s Socio-Economic Development: Case Study of Mandera County

Abstract:

ABSTRACT Somalia’s protracted conflict is as a result of external influence from other countries tracing back from the seventh century when it was first discovered and established by the Arabs and the Persians through the trading posts along the Indian Ocean south of Somalia. This was then followed by the Portuguese explorers who attempted to establish sovereignty over the Somali coast but were defeated by the Ajuran Empire, which was a Somali Empire belonging to the Somali Muslim Sultanate. Later the Turkish rule came in and extended their rule towards northern Somali coast. Lastly, it was occupied by the British, Italian and French Colony. It with this external interference that divided the Somalia in terms of Power and Status. Whereby each clan regarded itself more superior than the other. The struggle over clan supremacy is what led to the unceasing conflict up-to-date and consequently spilling over to the neighboring country and in this case in Mandera County in Kenya. This then led to the main objective of the study which was to examine the effect of Somalia’s internal conflict on the socio-economic development of Mandera County in Kenya. Thus the utmost way of achieving the main objective was to assess impact of Somalia’s internal conflict on the social and economic activities of residents in Mandera County. Mandera County was the focus of the research because the County itself that borders Somalia as well as Ethiopia. Therefore when conflict in Somalia takes place it easily spills over to Mandera County and consequently affects the residents of Mandera County who become the direct target of the conflict. As a result, it was realized that most research conducted focused on Somalia’s internal conflict affecting the socio-economic development of Kenya as well as the countries located at the Horn of Africa (Eritrea, Ethiopia and Djibouti) However, the gap that had not so much been researched on, was the effect Somalia’s internal conflict had on the socio-economic development of Mandera County in Kenya. It is with this that two theories were seen to best fit for the research these included the structural conflict theory and liberalism theory because these two theories focused on unequal distribution and competition over scarce resources and power, class struggle, the right to life, property and liberty, peace and gender equality and interconnectedness which was evident in the research . A purposive sampling was done from individuals who were experts in the field of this research. A qualitative method of research through open ended questionnaires to respondents working for the Kenyan Government, was used to conduct the research because due to the Covid-19 pandemic lockdown measures of travelling from county to county had been set thus it was challenging to collect primary data from the residents in Mandera. Although, secondary data collection done through collecting of information from publications and journals related to the research. From the findings it was noted that Somalia’s internal conflict brought about Refugee influx, Terrorism and Youth Radicalization, Poverty and Scarcity of Natural Resources, Insecurity, Proliferation of Arms and Weapons, Human Trafficking, Food Security, Early Marriage, Poor Governance and corruption, Inter County Dispute, External interference especially by the Kenyan Government towards Somalia’s internal affairs. In a nutshell the spillover effect of Somalia’s internal conflict on Mandera County was all caused by external interference from other countries wanting to occupy it and most dominantly was during the colonial period when British and Italians took control of the Northern and Southern part of Somalia. This eventually led to a supremacy battle between clans in Somalia and consequently spilling over and affecting the same clans in Mandera County through the porous borders thus lowering the county’s socio-economic development. It was therefore suggested the following, Somalia should look back at the root of the conflicts so as to resolve its ongoing matters once and for all. Secondly, the Kenyan government also played a part in Somalia’s internal affairs thus creating conflict amongst clans in Somalia and as a result spilling over to Mandera County therefore, Kenya should refrain from involving itself with the internal affairs of Somalia. Lastly, the Kenyan Government through the County Government of Mandera should improve on the curbing down Refugee influx from Somalia, it should also come up with ways improve its security through intense policing so as to avoid terrorist activities and attacks, it should promote education and employment for all to curb down youth radicalization and poverty, the county should find ways of improve climate change to prevent drought and lastly it should also promote peace between clans to avoid inter-county dispute and improve its governance by curbing down corruption.
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APA

Wambui, M (2024). The Spillover Effect of Somalia’s Internal Conflict on Kenya’s Socio-Economic Development: Case Study of Mandera County. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/the-spillover-effect-of-somalia-s-internal-conflict-on-kenya-s-socio-economic-development-case-study-of-mandera-county

MLA 8th

Wambui, Maara "The Spillover Effect of Somalia’s Internal Conflict on Kenya’s Socio-Economic Development: Case Study of Mandera County" Afribary. Afribary, 03 May. 2024, https://afribary.com/works/the-spillover-effect-of-somalia-s-internal-conflict-on-kenya-s-socio-economic-development-case-study-of-mandera-county. Accessed 19 Jun. 2024.

MLA7

Wambui, Maara . "The Spillover Effect of Somalia’s Internal Conflict on Kenya’s Socio-Economic Development: Case Study of Mandera County". Afribary, Afribary, 03 May. 2024. Web. 19 Jun. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/the-spillover-effect-of-somalia-s-internal-conflict-on-kenya-s-socio-economic-development-case-study-of-mandera-county >.

Chicago

Wambui, Maara . "The Spillover Effect of Somalia’s Internal Conflict on Kenya’s Socio-Economic Development: Case Study of Mandera County" Afribary (2024). Accessed June 19, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/the-spillover-effect-of-somalia-s-internal-conflict-on-kenya-s-socio-economic-development-case-study-of-mandera-county