The Value of Garcina Kola (Bitter Kola) as Feed Ingredient and Anti-Microbial Agent for Layers and Rabbits

ABSTRACT

Two experiments were conducted to determine the value of bitter kola as feed ingredient and antimicrobial agent for laying hens and growing rabbits.
Vitamin C and mineral analysis of the bitter kola showed that it contained 0.028 mg/g magnesium, 0.025mg/g calcium, 0.161mg/g potassium, 0.057mg/g phosphorus, 0.282mg/g sodium, 0.400mg/g chlorine, 0.073mg/g sulphur, 0.02mg/g Fe, 0.003mg/g zinc, 0.05 mg/g cupper, 0.012mg/g manganese and 11.43mg/100g vitamin C. In the first experiment, four layer diets were formulated to contain bitter kola seed meal at dietary levels of 0%, 2.5%, 5.0% and 7.5%, designated as T
0, T2.5, T5.0, and T7.5, respectively. Four groups of 30 Hyline brown laying hens were randomly assigned to the four treatment diets in a completely randomized design and fed for 84 days. T2.5 had significantly (P0.05). There were also no significant differences in feed intake (P>0.05) but feed intake tended to increase with increase in dietary Garcinia kola seed meal. The layers on T7.5 gained significantly (P0.05). Bitter kola tended to increase albumen weight and to decrease the yolk weight. T2.5 had significantly (P0.05). No significant (P>0.05) differences occurred in serum total protein, percent albumn, percent globulin, glucose and cholesterol. There were also no treatment effects (P>0.05) on the serum electrolytes (Na, K and Hco3). Serum calcium was significantly (P0.05) on liver, gizzard, abdominal fat and intestinal weights. Bitter kola tended to decrease the weight of the kidney and the heart. Dressed weights were not affected by the treatments (P>0.05). Bitter kola inhibited the growth of salmonella spp, Ascaris lumbricoides and oocyst of Isospora belli at 5.0% and 7.5% dietary levels. There were histological alterations of the kidney, liver and gizzard. The main cellular changes include distortion of general tissue architecture, tissue stroma proliferation, oedema of tissue, hyperthrophy and necrosis. In the second experiment, bitter kola seed meal was used in formulating four rabbit grower mash at dietary levels of 0%, 2.5%, 5.0% and 7.5%, designated as T0, T2.5, T5.0, and T7.5, respectively. Each diet was fed to 9 grower rabbits for 84 days. The Garcinia kola groups consumed significantly (P0.05). Dressed weight, liver and heart weights were not affected by the treatments (P>0.05). The weights of the kidney decreased with increase in bitter kola inclusion. Similarly abdominal fat decreased with increase in dietary bitter kola. At 7.5% dietary level, the weight of skin was significantly reduced (P

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APA

Chidozie, E (2021). The Value of Garcina Kola (Bitter Kola) as Feed Ingredient and Anti-Microbial Agent for Layers and Rabbits. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/the-value-of-garcina-kola-bitter-kola-as-feed-ingredient-and-anti-microbial-agent-for-layers-and-rabbits

MLA 8th

Chidozie, Esiegwu "The Value of Garcina Kola (Bitter Kola) as Feed Ingredient and Anti-Microbial Agent for Layers and Rabbits" Afribary. Afribary, 25 Feb. 2021, https://afribary.com/works/the-value-of-garcina-kola-bitter-kola-as-feed-ingredient-and-anti-microbial-agent-for-layers-and-rabbits. Accessed 20 Jun. 2024.

MLA7

Chidozie, Esiegwu . "The Value of Garcina Kola (Bitter Kola) as Feed Ingredient and Anti-Microbial Agent for Layers and Rabbits". Afribary, Afribary, 25 Feb. 2021. Web. 20 Jun. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/the-value-of-garcina-kola-bitter-kola-as-feed-ingredient-and-anti-microbial-agent-for-layers-and-rabbits >.

Chicago

Chidozie, Esiegwu . "The Value of Garcina Kola (Bitter Kola) as Feed Ingredient and Anti-Microbial Agent for Layers and Rabbits" Afribary (2021). Accessed June 20, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/the-value-of-garcina-kola-bitter-kola-as-feed-ingredient-and-anti-microbial-agent-for-layers-and-rabbits