Therapeutic, Phytochemical Analysis And Safety Of Solanum Scabrum And Cleome Gynandra In Management Of Haemolytic Anaemia In Wistar Albino Rats

ABSTRACT

Anaemia is a disease, according to the World Health Organization, in which the haemoglobin concentration is below 12 g/dl of blood. The prevalence of anaemia in school going children in Africa is 64.6% while in Asia it is 47.7%. Anaemia is also prevalent among women and infants and threatens the life of millions of people every year. Modern therapies in management of anaemia are either too expensive or unavailable to many communities. Use of plants in the management of anaemia is not uncommon in some communities in Africa. Solanum scabrum and Cleome gynandra are some of the plants that have been reported to be used in the management of anaemia in some African communities. Despite this, there is no report on the scientific evaluation of the two plants in terms of management of anaemia and their toxicity. The World Health Organization suggested that the scientific evaluation of the safety of herbal medicines should be undertaken. The aim of the current study was to determine the efficacy, safety and phytochemical composition of Cleome gynandra and Solanum scabrum as applied in the treatment of haemolytic anaemia in wistar albino rats. The haematinic effect of the two plants was done by treatment of albino wistar rats with 40 mg/kg body weight of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine intraperitoneally for 5 days and only rats with haemoglobin concertation lower than 11 g/dl were considered to be anaemic. The anaemic rats were given daily oral doses of the freeze dried aqueous extract of Solanum scabrum and Cleome gynandra at 250 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight respectively and separately for a period of three weeks. In the toxicity test, the sub-acute toxicity was done by treatment of non-anaemic rats with 3000 mg/kg body weight dose given once to different groups for each plant. The animals were observed for a period of 48 hours and the mortality rate was zero so the LD50 dose for the plants extract was above 3000 mg/kg. The chronic toxicity test was done by treatment of non anaemic rats with a daily aqueous oral dose of 1000 mg/ kg body weight of each plant for 28 days. The haemoglobin concentration of the anaemic control and the 250 mg/kg body weight dose of Cleome gynandra were still below 11 g/dl showing moderate anaemia after one weeks of treatment. The test animals given the plant extract had their haemoglobin concentration increased to above 11 g/dl within two weeks for both the 500 mg/kg body weight dose groups and the 250 mg/kg body weight dose groups of both plant extracts as compared to the normal control which the haemoglobin concentration was still below 11 g/dl and still anaemic. After three weeks of treatment with the plant extract all groups including the anaemic control had a haemoglobin concentration above 11 g/dl. The chronic toxicity test after 4 weeks of treatment of non anaemic rats with 1000 mg/kg body weight of both plants aqueous extracts separately showed significantly higher levels of the blood enzymes alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase as compared to the normal control. The direct and total bilirubin levels were also significantly elevated as compared to the normal control. This indicated some level of liver toxicity. The 500 mg/kg doses showed an increased haemoglobin concentration of the anaemic rats to above 12 g/dl within 2 weeks of treatment with the plant extracts while for the anaemic control and the 250 mg/kg body weight dose of Solanum scabrum it required at least 3 weeks for the haemoglobin concentration to be above 12 g/dl. The 250 mg/kg body weight dose of Cleome gynandra was the only one with a haemoglobin concentration below 12 g/dl after 3 weeks of treatment. The freeze dried aqueous plant extracts of Solanum scabrum and Cleome gynandra have some haematinic activity against 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine induced haemolytic anaemia in wistar albino rats. The chemical phytochemicals analysis showed that the two plant extracts contained tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids, polyphenols and cardiac glycosides. The two plant extracts also contain important trace metals like selenium, iron, copper, zinc, cobalt and manganese which are important in synthesis of haemoglobin and erythrocytes therefore reverse anaemia

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APA

WAKHISI, C (2021). Therapeutic, Phytochemical Analysis And Safety Of Solanum Scabrum And Cleome Gynandra In Management Of Haemolytic Anaemia In Wistar Albino Rats. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/therapeutic-phytochemical-analysis-and-safety-of-solanum-scabrum-and-cleome-gynandra-in-management-of-haemolytic-anaemia-in-wistar-albino-rats

MLA 8th

WAKHISI, CHARLES "Therapeutic, Phytochemical Analysis And Safety Of Solanum Scabrum And Cleome Gynandra In Management Of Haemolytic Anaemia In Wistar Albino Rats" Afribary. Afribary, 30 May. 2021, https://afribary.com/works/therapeutic-phytochemical-analysis-and-safety-of-solanum-scabrum-and-cleome-gynandra-in-management-of-haemolytic-anaemia-in-wistar-albino-rats. Accessed 29 May. 2024.

MLA7

WAKHISI, CHARLES . "Therapeutic, Phytochemical Analysis And Safety Of Solanum Scabrum And Cleome Gynandra In Management Of Haemolytic Anaemia In Wistar Albino Rats". Afribary, Afribary, 30 May. 2021. Web. 29 May. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/therapeutic-phytochemical-analysis-and-safety-of-solanum-scabrum-and-cleome-gynandra-in-management-of-haemolytic-anaemia-in-wistar-albino-rats >.

Chicago

WAKHISI, CHARLES . "Therapeutic, Phytochemical Analysis And Safety Of Solanum Scabrum And Cleome Gynandra In Management Of Haemolytic Anaemia In Wistar Albino Rats" Afribary (2021). Accessed May 29, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/therapeutic-phytochemical-analysis-and-safety-of-solanum-scabrum-and-cleome-gynandra-in-management-of-haemolytic-anaemia-in-wistar-albino-rats