Research Papers/Topics in Immunology

Immunophenotype And Hepato-Biomarker Characteristics Of Hiv Infected Adults And Hematological Reference Ranges Of Children In Kisumu West Subcounty, Kenya

ABSTRACTProper diagnosis and management of clinical diseases requires succinct understanding ofwell-established human physiological reference values. Despite the high prevalence ratesof HIV, Tuberculosis and Hepatitis infection in Kisumu area of Western Kenya, there areno locally developed hematological values that can be used as reference values of normalbiological or homeostatic processes from which pathogenic, pathologic or pharmacologicresponses to a therapeutic intervention can be inferr...

Effects Of Cotrimoxazole Withdrawal On Malaria Parasitemia Prevalence, Parasite Density And Multiplicity Of Infection In Hiv-Infected Individuals With Immune Recovery Following Antiretroviral

ABSTRACTStrategies to reduce HIV-related morbidity and mortality include scale up of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) and provision of broad spectrum antibiotics. Cotrimoxazole (CTX) is a widely available low cost antibiotic recommended by WHO in settings with high infectious disease prevalence for treatment and prevention of opportunistic infections and malaria in all HIV-infected individuals. With immune reconstitution following ART, the risk of opportunistic infections greatly diminishes. Cont...

Seroprevalence And Determinants Of Transfusion Transmissible Infections Among Voluntary Blood Donors In Homabay, Kisumu And Siaya Counties In Western Kenya

ABSTRACTTransfusion transmissible infections (TTIs) especially, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis (Treponema pallidum) are a constant threat to blood safety for recipients. Globally, about 1.6 million blood units are destroyed annually owing to TTIs seropositivity, of which 10% is discarded in sub-Saharan Africa. In Kenya, despite of a series of safety improvements in blood donations among them rigorous pre-donation screening and...

Polymorphisms Of Toll Like Receptor 4 (-8984c/G And 299asp/Gly) And Interferon Gamma Levels In Children With Severe Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria Anaemia In Siaya County, Western Kenya

ABSTRACTPlasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) malaria is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa despite the integrated approaches put in place to control the disease. Most of the mortality in holoendemic transmission areas occurs due to severe P. falciparum disease complication of severe malarial anaemia (SMA), a condition which largely presents in children below five years. Molecular determinants have been implicated in the pathogenesis of SMA (Hb

Development Of Antibody Dependent Respiratory Burst Assay As A Tool For Evaluating Cellular Immunity To Malaria

ABSTRACTMalaria vaccine clinical trials in exposed populations have not always been consistent infinding robust associations between the predicted immune responses and protectionagainst disease. The selection of most promising vaccine candidates have been based ondirect antibody inhibition assays that have performed dismally. This suggests that suchimmune correlates employed in assessing their efficacies may not be surrogate markers ofprotection. Immunity to asexual blood stage malaria is com...

Comparative Measurement Of Fetal Haemoglobin Levels And Their Association With Antibody Responses To Plasmodium Falciparum Antigens Among Sickle Cell Patients In Bondo Sub-County, Western Ken

ABSTRACT Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection remains one of the greatest global public health problems. However, studies have shown that fetal haemoglobin (HbF) protects against malaria in sickle cell disease (SCD) and HbF cooperates with antibodies to provide protection. Associations between HbF and antibodies have been done only on infants and therefore protection could be due to maternal immunity. Children at 5 years old have developed their own immunity and also HbF levels do not sign...

Influence Of Cyp2b6 Polymorphisms On Cd4+ T Cell Count And Hiv Rna Viral Load Changes Among Individuals On Nevirapine Containing Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

ABSTRACTHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Kenyawith a prevalence of 6.5%. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is used to manage the diseaseby increasing the number of CD4 cells and reducing the viral load concentration. Majority of theseHAART based medication contain nevirapine (NVP) that is metabolized through the cytochrome P 450(CYP450) system. The use of NVP is however, limited by sub-optimal response from patients. This po...

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Among Elderly Medical Patients At The Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana.

ABSTRACT Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has now spread to all parts of the world with rates particularly high in young people (15-49 years) than older people (>50 years). Despite the global attention being paid to the epidemic of infection with HIV, the rates among older people in the sub-Saharan Africa has been a neglected area of study. This cross-sectional study carried out between the months of November, 2012 and January 2014 sought to determine the prevalence of HIV among...

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Among Elderly Medical Patients At The Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana

ABSTRACT Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has now spread to all parts of the world with rates particularly high in young people (15-49 years) than older people (>50 years). Despite the global attention being paid to the epidemic of infection with HIV, the rates among older people in the sub-Saharan Africa has been a neglected area of study. This cross-sectional study carried out between the months of November, 2012 and January 2014 sought to determine the prevalence of HIV among...

Maternally Transferred Antibody Levels And Igg3 Hinge Region Length Polymorphisms In The Risk Of Clinical Malaria In Infants In A Birth Cohort At Kintampo, Ghana

ABSTRACTIntroduction: Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains a global public health threat especially for children under five years. Fetuses receive maternal immunoglobulins in utero by passive transfer and this is believed to protect infants at least for the first six months after delivery. IgG3 among the IgG subclasses is known to be more protective because of the long hinge region making the molecule flexible and easier to link antigens and Fc receptors for antigen elimination. However, the...