The Impacts Of Deforestation On Rural Women Livelihood: A Case Study Of Kangema Dwision, Murang’a District, Kenya.

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ABSTRACT

A study on the impacts of deforestation on rural women livelihoods was carried out in Kangema division of Murang’a district in central Kenya. The reasons why on~farm sources of wood fuel were not enough, the impacts of deforestation on land productivity and measures that were employed to remedy deforestation were the main variables considered in the study. Data collection in the study included the use of photography, questionnaires, observation, interviewing and literature review. The study findings revealed that impacts of deforestation on rural women livelihoods included limiting their economic opportunities, increasing gender related conflicts, lack and shortage of water, loss of productive time and health related complications. The study also established that the reasons for lack of enough wood on their farms included, inadequate agroforestry practices, lack of financial resources, taboos and culture. The impacts of deforestation on land productivity were associated with increased rate of soil erosion and low annual crop yields. Measures that were taken to control deforestation included, training in agroforestry practices and energy conservation. The study recommended that, participation of both men and women on agroforestry should be encouraged, provision of soft loans through rural micro-financing, empowering rural women in women groups, provision of seeds and seedlings, promotion of alternative energy and environmental education to the whole community within Kangema division. V

ACRONYMS F.A.O - Food and Agriculture Organization G.D.P -Gross Domestic Product LU.C.N - International Union for Conservation ofNature K.F.D -Kenya Forestry Department K.F.R.I -Kenya Forestry Research Institute K.W.W.A.N-Kenya Women with Aids Network M.A.L - Ministry ofAgriculture and Livestock M.E.N.R - Ministry ofEnvironment and Natural Resources M.O.E -Ministry ofEducation NG.O.s -Non-Governmental Organizations U.N.E.P -United Nations Environmental Programme W.H.O -World Health Organization vi TABLE OF CONTENTS DECLARATION APPROVAL DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iv ABSTRACT v ACRONYMS vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS

vii CHAPTER ONE 1.1

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 1 1.1.1

General information about impacts of deforestation on rural women 2 1.1.2 The status of forest cover in Kenya 3 1.1.3 The status of wood energy sector in Kenya 3 1.1.4 Legislation policies related to deforestation 4 1.2 Problem statement 5 1.3 Study objectives 6 1.4 Research questions 6 1.5 Scope ofthe study 6 1.6 Purpose of the study 7 1.7 Significance ofthe study 7 1.8 Limitation ofthe study 8 1.9 Geographical background of the study area 8 1.9.1 Climate 8 1.9.2 Soils 8 1.9.3 Vegetation 9 1.9.4 Land use 9 1.9.5 Population 9 vii CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction 10 2.2 Deforestation and rural women 11 2.3 On-farm shortage of wood fuel supply 15 2.4 Impacts of deforestation on land productivity 17 2.5 Measures that have been put in place 18 CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Sample size and sample determination 21 3.2 Data collection methods and instruments 21 3.2.1 Data collection methods 21 3.2.2 Data collection instruments 21 3.3 Data analysis 21 CHAPTER FOUR PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF RESEARCH FINDINGS 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Impacts of deforestation on rural women livelihoods 23 4.2.1 Loss oftime 24 4.2.2 Loss of economic opportunities 24 4.2.3 Health complications 25 4.2.4 Low water supply 25 4.2.5 Poor nutrition 26 4.2.6 Gender conflict 26 4.3 Reasons as to why on-farm sources of wood fuel are not enough 26 4.3.1 Gender conflict 27 4.3.2 Inadequate agroforestry practices 28 4.3.3 Lack of financial resources 28 4.3.4 Culture and taboos 28 viii 4.4 Impacts of deforestation on land productivity 29 4.4.1 Lowering of yields 29 4.4.2 Soil erosion 30 4.4.3 Reduction ofwater supply 31 4.5 Measures that have been put in place to remedy deforestation 32 CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 5.1 Conclusion 5.1.1 Impacts of deforestation on rural women livelihoods 33 5.1.2 Reasons why on-farm sources of wood fuel are not enough 33 5.1.3 Impacts of deforestation on land productivity 33 5.1.4 Measures that have been put in place to address deforestation 33 5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS 5.2.1 Promotion of agroforestry 34 5.2.2 Promotion of energy conservation 36 5,2.3 Promotion of alternative energy 36 5.2.4 Environmental education 36 5.2.5 Future studies 37 Bibliography 39 APPENDICES APPENDIX 1 Research Questionnaire format 40 LIST OF PLATES Plate 1: Stumps of felled trees 30 Plate 2: A felled tree 30 Plate 3: Deforestation of nearby Aberdare forest 31 LIST OF MAPS Map 1: Location ofMurang’a District in Kenya 41

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APA

Frontiers, E. & MAMA, E (2022). The Impacts Of Deforestation On Rural Women Livelihood: A Case Study Of Kangema Dwision, Murang’a District, Kenya.. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/tile-impacts-of-deforestation-on-rural-women-livelihood-a-case-study-of-kangema-dwision-murang-a-district-kenya

MLA 8th

Frontiers, Edu, and ELIAS MAMA "The Impacts Of Deforestation On Rural Women Livelihood: A Case Study Of Kangema Dwision, Murang’a District, Kenya." Afribary. Afribary, 13 Jun. 2022, https://afribary.com/works/tile-impacts-of-deforestation-on-rural-women-livelihood-a-case-study-of-kangema-dwision-murang-a-district-kenya. Accessed 02 Jul. 2022.

MLA7

Frontiers, Edu, and ELIAS MAMA . "The Impacts Of Deforestation On Rural Women Livelihood: A Case Study Of Kangema Dwision, Murang’a District, Kenya.". Afribary, Afribary, 13 Jun. 2022. Web. 02 Jul. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/tile-impacts-of-deforestation-on-rural-women-livelihood-a-case-study-of-kangema-dwision-murang-a-district-kenya >.

Chicago

Frontiers, Edu and MAMA, ELIAS . "The Impacts Of Deforestation On Rural Women Livelihood: A Case Study Of Kangema Dwision, Murang’a District, Kenya." Afribary (2022). Accessed July 02, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/tile-impacts-of-deforestation-on-rural-women-livelihood-a-case-study-of-kangema-dwision-murang-a-district-kenya