An Assessment of Pollution and Effects on Human, Animals, Plants and The Environment in Nigeria (Lagos State)

Adekunle Adeola 80 PAGES (20064 WORDS) Dissertation
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ABSTRACT

Pollution is the introduction of waste into the atmosphere making it impossible to make life onearth possible to sustain. Pollution is the introduction of a contaminant into the environment. Alot of anthropocentric activities have contributed to the gradual degradation of the ecosystem.However, they  are measures   that  can bring   sanity   and  recovery the wounded ecosystem. Incourse   of   this   study,   four   research   question   were   raised   among   which   are:   What   are   thecontributing factors to the rise of pollution issues in Nigeria and in major cities and towns andtheir environs? The theoretical framework upon which the study is based is the theory of generalstate   of   pollution   as   a   major   concern.   The   research   design   adopted   for   this   study   is   thedescriptive design. The population for the study was based on the population in Lagos state sincethe project is specific about this region. Ikeja local government area will be the case study forIndustrial site in the course of this project, other local government such as mushin and Yaba willalso be in the population for a wider coverage. The sample size for the study is 250 persons. Theinstrument used for the collection of data for this study is the questionnaire. Data collected wereanalyzed using simple statistics of mean with regards to the research questions and based on thestudy sample size. In the test of hypothesis, the null hypothesis is tested using the chi-squarestatistical tool. The adoption of this statistical tool. The findings shows that the most significantproblems inhibiting   the   natural  ecosystem   and   certain  effects that   is   accrued is   a   result thelifestyle adopted to the people in this part of the world. there are more people using generatorsand averagely every house by data distribution of the field has at least one generator, aside othersources of air pollution, bad practice of waste disposal, creation healthy and hygienic disposalarea. Open defecation is practiced by majority from the statistics of study. Based on the findingsof   this  study, the   study   therefore  recommends   a   few  among   many   action   to   be  which   are:Environmental education has a very strategic and important role in preparing people to solveglobal   environmental   problems.   People   need   continued   education,   especially   in   theenvironmental area, because the environment has been advancing rapidly. E.t.c. This way, therewill be accurate information to all on the lifestyle changes and its modification in maintenance ofecosystem and habitats.     

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE…………………………………………………………………………i

DECLARATION……………………………………………………………………..ii

CERTIFICATION……………………………………………………………………iii

DEDICATION………………………………………………………………………..iv

AKNOWLEDGMENT………………………………………………………………..v 

ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………………………..vi 

TABLE OF CONTENT ……………………………………………………………..vii

LIST OF TABLES……………………………………………………………………xi 

LIST OF FIGURES…………………………………………………………………xiii

LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS…………………………………xiv

CHAPTER ONE : INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND………………………………………………………..1

1.2  STATEMENT OF PROBLEM………………………………………….2

1.3  OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY…………………………………………3

1.4  SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY…………………………………………..4

1.5  SCOPE OF STUDY……………………………………………………..4

1.6  LIMITATION OF STUDIES……………………………………………5

1.7  RESEACH QUESTION…………………………………………………5

1.8  RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS…………………………………………….5

 1.9  JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY…………………………………….6

 1.10 LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS……………………..7

CHAPTER TWO : LITERATURE REVIEW……………………………………..8

2.0 INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………….8 

2.1 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK……………………………………….8

2.2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK………………………………………9

2.3 LITERATURE ON THE SUBJECT MATTER……………………….10

 2.3.1 THE SOIL……………………………………………………………...11 

2.3.1.1 SOME CAUSES OF SOIL POLLUTION……………………………..12

2.3.1.1.1 PESTICIDES…………………………………………………………..12

 2.3.1.1.2 HERBICIDES………………………………………………………….13 

2.3.1.1.3 INSECTICIDES………………………………………………………..13

2.3.1.1.4 UNHEALTHY WASTE MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUE……………13

2.3.1.1.5 MINNING ACTIVITIES………………………………………………14

 2.3.1.1.6 TRANSPORTATION ACTIVITIES…………………………………..14

2.3.1.1.7 ELECTRONIC WASTE……………………………………………….14

2.3.1.2 HEALTH EFFECTS OF SOIL POLLUTION ………………………..14

2.3.1.3 EFFECTS OF SOIL POLLUTION ON VEGETATION……………...15

2.3.1.3 EFFECTS OF SOIL POLLUTION ON THE ECOSYSTEM………...16

2.3.2 OPEN DEFECATION…………………………………………………17

2.3.2.1 HEALTH IMPLICATION OF OPEN DEFECATION………………..17 

2.3.3 AIR POLLUTION……………………………………………………..19

2.3.3.1 SOME SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION IN LAGOS STATE………19

2.3.3.1.1 REFUSE BURNING…………………………………………………..20

2.3.3.1.2 MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES………………………………….21

 2.3.3.1.3 VEHICULAR EMMISSIONS…………………………………………22

 2.3.3.1.4 BUSH BURNING……………………………………………………..23

2.3.3.1.5 CHEMICAL FERTILIZER INDUSTRY……………………………..23

2.3.3.1.6 GAS FLARING………………………………………………………..23

2.3.3.1.7 WASTE MANAGEMENT…………………………………………….24

2.3.3.2 AIR POLLUTION AND LAGOS CLIMATE CHANGE……………..24

2.3.3.2.1 HEALTH RICKS OF AIR POLLUTION……………………………..25

2.3.3.2.2 FLOODING AND SEA LEVEL RISE IN LAGOS…………………..26

2.3.3.2.3 EFEECTS OF AIR POLLUTION……………………………………..27

2.3.3.2.3.1 EFFECT ON HUMANS’ HEALTH…………………………………...27

2.3.3.2.3.1.1 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM AND DISEASES………………………...27

2.3.3.2.3.2 EFFECT OF AIR POLLUTION ON TREES………………………….28

2.3.3.2.3.2.1 SULPHUR DIOXIDE………………………………………………….28 

2.3.3.2.3.2.2 OZONE………………………………………………………………..29 

2.3.4 NOISE POLLUTION…………………………………………………..29

 CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY………………………….32

3.0  INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………..32

3.1 RESEARCH METHOD………………………………………………..32

3.2 RESEACH DESIGN…………………………………………………...32

3.3 POPULATION OF STUDY…………………………………………...33

3.3 SAMPLING SIZE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE…………………33

3.4 INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION…………………………34

3.5 INSTRUMENT VALIDATION……………………………………….34

3.6 RELIABILITY OF INSTRUMENT…………………………………...35

3.7 PROCEDURE FOR DATA COLLECTION…………………………..35

3.8 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS…………………………………….36

3.9 ETHICAL CONSIDERATION………………………………………..36 

4.0 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY……………………………………..36 

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION……..37

4.1 DATA ANALYSIS…………………………………………………….37 

4.2 TESTING OF HYPOTHESIS………………………………………….43

4.3 FINDINGS OF THE STUDY………………………………………….46

4.4 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS…………………………………………47

 CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS…………………………………………..50

 5.2 CONCLUSION………………………………………………………...50

5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS………………………………………………52

5.4 PROPOSAL FOR FURTHER STUDIES……………………………...54

REFERENCES……………………………………………………………………...55

 APPENDIX 1………………………………………………………………………..64

APPENDIX 1

 QUESTIONAIRE…………………………………………………..65

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APA

Adekunle, A (2020). An Assessment of Pollution and Effects on Human, Animals, Plants and The Environment in Nigeria (Lagos State). Afribary.com: Retrieved December 05, 2020, from https://afribary.com/works/adekunle-thesis-complete-file-1-exp

MLA 8th

Adeola, Adekunle. "An Assessment of Pollution and Effects on Human, Animals, Plants and The Environment in Nigeria (Lagos State)" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 06 Aug. 2020, https://afribary.com/works/adekunle-thesis-complete-file-1-exp . Accessed 05 Dec. 2020.

MLA7

Adeola, Adekunle. "An Assessment of Pollution and Effects on Human, Animals, Plants and The Environment in Nigeria (Lagos State)". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 06 Aug. 2020. Web. 05 Dec. 2020. < https://afribary.com/works/adekunle-thesis-complete-file-1-exp >.

Chicago

Adeola, Adekunle. "An Assessment of Pollution and Effects on Human, Animals, Plants and The Environment in Nigeria (Lagos State)" Afribary.com (2020). Accessed December 05, 2020. https://afribary.com/works/adekunle-thesis-complete-file-1-exp