The study was carried out to analyze the vulnerability and adaptive measures to flood disaster in Rivers State focusing on Ahoada west local government area. Structured questionnaire was used in collecting data from a total of number of one hundred and eighty (180) respondents in Ahoada west local government area out of which one hundred and seventy two (172)were retrieved. Data for this study were collected from primary and secondary sources. The primary source was from structured questionnaire as mentioned above while the secondary data was collected from books, journals, past student project newspaper etc. The data for this study were analyzed with simple descriptive statistical tools like frequency and percentage. The study analyzed the socio-economic characteristics of recipient in the study area, identified the causes of flood outbreak, ascertained how often flood outbreak occurred in the study area, identified factors militating against the efficient management of flood disaster and how vulnerability of flood disaster can be minimized and identified in areas most vulnerable to
flood disaster and adaptive strategies adopted by the people.
An Analytical Study Of Vulnerability And Adaptive Measures To Flood Disaster In Rivers State: A Case Of Ahoada West Local Government Area.Maduakolam, Vivian Adaku (1)Inyang, Oduduabasi (2)Kaigama, Francis N (3)AbstractThe study was carried out to analyze the vulnerability and adaptive measures to flood disaster inRivers State focusing on Ahoada west local government area. Structured questionnaire was usedin collecting data from a total of number of one hundred and eighty (180) respondents inAhoada west local government area out of which one hundred and seventy two (172)wereretrieved. Data for this study were collected from primary and secondary sources. The primarysource was from structured questionnaire as mentioned above while the secondary data wascollected from books, journals, past student project newspaper etc. The data for this study wereanalyzed with simple descriptive statistical tools like frequency and percentage. The studyanalyzed the socio-economic characteristics of recipient in the study area, identified the causesof flood outbreak, ascertained how often flood outbreak occurred in the study area, identifiedfactors militating against the efficient management of flood disaster and how vulnerability offlood disaster can be minimized and identified in areas most vulnerable to flood disaster andadaptive strategies adopted by the people.Key Words: Flood disaster, Vulnerability, Adaptive Measures, Ahoada West,Rivers StateCHAPTER ONE1
INTRODUCTION1.1 Background to the StudyIn the previous four decades, they have been severe economic loses which has been as a result offlood and this have increase and resulting in deaths and socio economic rampage, as well asdamaging the environment . (Munich Re, 2002).Frequent flooding and different perils have beenseen as a genuine risk to the idea of sustainable improvement. 33% of all deaths, 33% of allinjuries are brought about by surge and other characteristic fiasco (Askew, 1999. Mostimportantly, flood disasters is caused by human-induced vulnerability which is a result of mancommunicating with his surroundings through his involvement in designing and locating ofinfrastructure, exploitation of natural resources, rising population etc (Hualou, 2011).Floods are as results of when water from rainfalls settles across an impermeable surface andcannot evaporate. Rapid storms moving over a particular location can cause flooding while damscan generate flood on low-lying terrain which often causes significant damage. The 2012 floodincidence in Nigeria lead to damaging effects and this was so severe that it was categorized as anall-round disaster. States that were affected within the 36 states of the Federation, includedAnambraand 34 states capital and communities that had the painful experience caused by theflood. Out of the 21 Local government territories in Anambra state, Eight LGAs were affected.Five out of those affected 3 make up the Omambala area and were the most adversely affectedby the incidence. Buildings and other properties worth millions of naira were affected, whilemany persons were displaced (NEMA, 2012, ANSEMA, 2012, NIHSA, 2013).Research onpoverty, water and flood observed that there was a rise of flood occurrences and its intensity inrecent years; resulting to death, and many persons injured , people were rendered homeless, theenvironment wasn’t spared as well as the agriculture sector was impacted, (Abdul-Akeem Sadiq,2012, Bariweni Ol, 2012,The 2012 flood incidence was a sad experience in Nigeria for the veryfirst time states such as Ekiti, Katsina, and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) didn’t felt theimpact of the damaging effect of the 2012 flood but however, all the other Nigeria state felt theserious harm brought on by flooding. From available records of The 2013 Annual FloodOutlook (AFO)for Nigeria its shows how flooding affected about 156 Local Government Areaswhile emphasizing the need to reduce and turn flooding into an array of opportunity so as tochange the society through a higher realm of sustainable efforts.These are the facts that have prompted this research1.2 Statement of the Problem2
In recent times, the occurrence of calamitous events has been increasing, threatening thesafety of Nigeria’s growing population and also the built environment. This has manifestedin every day news of loss of lives and properties across the country as hardly will there bea day without a catastrophic event. Evidently being seen by the developing environmentalchange, the expanding wave of calamity moderate down the pace in fulfillment of theMillennium Development Goals (MDG's) which have now metamorphosed into theSustainable development goals (SDG’s) Obasanjo (2005), this occurs because primaryinstitutions are often under lock and keys during flood and earthquakes, leaving womenand mothers including young teenagers with more stress and work load resulting in poorhealth conditions. Also, catastrophes including the regular ones that go unnoticed by theoutside world, influence neediness diminishment endeavors from numerous points of view.They have macroeconomic contacts with broad harm to foundation and beneficial capital.The change of direction of revenue into response to disaster has also impact fiscally as costof living or rise in food thereby threatening food security and precipitating crimes Sincethe ability of the government to meet the need of social welfare of the people is weakeneddue to the unavoidable channeling of available resources to clean up and rebuild thedamaged assets to restore livelihood, the impact of disaster has negative consequence onevery aspect of a society. According to ISDR (2004), vast amount of money are spentannually on response to situations of disaster. The number of death and colossaldestruction on the built environment caused by a catastrophic event is of serious concern tothe entire world. Also, the prevalence of HIV/AIDS epidemic and malaria as well as cholera outbreaks issome of the threatening biological hazards that are eliciting international concern. Thissituation is even worsened by the raising wave of terrorism, ethno-religious conflicts/crisesand industrial emissions as well as rapid urbanization /population expansion. This isbecause the threat of human activities and actions increases the possibility of man-madeenvironment collapse due to the environmental stress arising from over population.Markarfi (2004) opined that the financial resources available for disaster management areincreasingly becoming limited in the face of competing demands from the other sectors ofthe economy. For a long time now much of the effort utilized in the management ofdisaster have been more of reacting to or in form of relief through provision of basicamenities that were destroyed after a disaster (UNICEF, 1986) or humanitariancommitment (Black, 1992), disaster prevention (Kaplan, 1996) and most recently,managing the risk caused by disaster (Kaji, 2012). Project that have direct bearing onpeople have often times increased vulnerability and have only succeeded in enlarging risksin short-term way, generating strategies. Most of the factors arising from disaster risk aregenerated by unfavorable development practices, and the difficulties in reducing riskespecially in some Africa countries have posed a developmental question. Therefore, forthe livelihood and sustainable development concept to be attained, there must beknowledge of risk in disaster in view of reduction in vulnerability and enhancingresilience. According to Olayinka (2013), flooding have been categorized as a severe3
Oduduabasi, I (2019). An Analytical Study of Vulnerability and Adaptive Measures to Flood Disaster in Rivers State: A Case of Ahoada West Local Government Area.. Afribary.com: Retrieved January 19, 2021, from https://afribary.com/works/an-analytical-study-of-vulnerability-and-adaptive-measures-to-flood-disaster-in-rivers-state-a-case-of-ahoada-west-local-government-area
Inyang, Oduduabasi. "An Analytical Study of Vulnerability and Adaptive Measures to Flood Disaster in Rivers State: A Case of Ahoada West Local Government Area." Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 15 Oct. 2019, https://afribary.com/works/an-analytical-study-of-vulnerability-and-adaptive-measures-to-flood-disaster-in-rivers-state-a-case-of-ahoada-west-local-government-area . Accessed 19 Jan. 2021.
Inyang, Oduduabasi. "An Analytical Study of Vulnerability and Adaptive Measures to Flood Disaster in Rivers State: A Case of Ahoada West Local Government Area.". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 15 Oct. 2019. Web. 19 Jan. 2021. < https://afribary.com/works/an-analytical-study-of-vulnerability-and-adaptive-measures-to-flood-disaster-in-rivers-state-a-case-of-ahoada-west-local-government-area >.
Inyang, Oduduabasi. "An Analytical Study of Vulnerability and Adaptive Measures to Flood Disaster in Rivers State: A Case of Ahoada West Local Government Area." Afribary.com (2019). Accessed January 19, 2021. https://afribary.com/works/an-analytical-study-of-vulnerability-and-adaptive-measures-to-flood-disaster-in-rivers-state-a-case-of-ahoada-west-local-government-area