Antimicrobial screening , nutrients profile and Pyhtochemical analysis of the leaf extracts of Tetrapluera tetraptera

Viky Silvar Professor R. U. B. Ebana 74 PAGES (12281 WORDS) Project
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ABSTRACT

Phytochemical and Antimicrobial activity of the leaves of Tetrapluera tetraptera using aqueous and ethanolic extract was studied. The leave was observed to be highly rich in polyphenols, flavonoid, reducing compounds and alkaloids. Glycosides, saponins and tanins were present in small amount, there was absence of Phlobotanins, anthraquinones and hydroxyl methyl anthraquinones. In order to confirm the exact concentration of the Phytochemicals present in the leave of T. tetraptera, a GCMS analysis was carried out which revealed the presence of 14 components.  Alkaloids had the highest Phytochemical of 21.67%, followed by Terpenes (14.56%), Phytate (12.39%) Tanins (10.08%). Compounds also present were Flavonoid, phenol, Phytosterol and Cardiac glycosides which were moderately high, Saponins,  cyanogenic glycosides, Oxalate, Anthocyanins, Steroids and Coumarin were also present but in smaller quantity ranging from 2.34- 0.83. The antimicrobial activity was carried out using the standard disc diffusion method on 3 microorganisms.  The aqueous extract inhibited Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus spp while the ethanolic extract had no effect on any of the test microorganisms. The highest inhibition shown on Proteus was 12.38mm. In addition, the leave contained essential elements like K (3.90), Na (4.92), CA (2.08). The leave was also rich in Vitamin A (295.72 ±0.02), Vitamin C (34.60±0.01). Other vitamins present were Riboflavin, thiamin and niacin. The results confirmed that the leave extracts of T. tetraptera can be harnessed for therapy of diseases associated with these pathogens. 














TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page

Title Page i

Declaration ii

Certification iii

Dedication iv

Acknowledgements v

Abstract vi

Table of Contents vii

List of Tables xi


CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 

Introduction 1

Aim and objectives      5                                                                                                 


CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 The history of medicinal plant 6                                                                                                                           

2.2 Medicinal plants in Africa 7                                                                                   

2.3 Drug resistance by human pathogens 10                                                                                                                  

2.4 Phytochemical properties of Tetrapluera tetraptera    11                                                                                                          


2.5 BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS

2.5.1 Saponin 11                                                                                                                           

2.5.2 flavonin      12                                                                                                                    

2.5.3 Tanins 13                                                                                                                          

2.5.4 Phenolics 16                                                                                                                          

2.5.5 Alkaloids 17

2.5.6 Terpenes 18                                                                                                         

2.6 Mechanism of action of phytochemicals 18

2.7 Safety concerns of phytochemicals 19

2.8 Medicinal Plant used in the study 20                                                                                                                         


CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1 Collection of study plant 25

3.2 Collection and identification of Clinical Isolates 25

3.3 Preparation of Media 25

3.4 Preparation of leave sample 26

3.5 Gram Staining 27

3.6 Physiological tests 28

3.6.1 Catalase Test 28

3.6.2 Coagulase Test 28

3.6.3 Citrate Test 29

3.6.4 Oxidase Test 29

3.6.5 Motility test 30

3.7 Phytochemical screening 30

3.7.1 Test for tannins 30

3.7.2 Test for alkaloids 30

3.7.3 Test For Saponins 31

3.7.4 Test for Tannins 31

3.7.5 Test for reducing compounds 31

3.8 Determination of vitamins 33

3.8.1 Determination of vitamin A 33

3.8.2 Determination of vitamin C 33

3.8.3 Determination of Riboflavin 34

3.8.4 Determination of Thaimine 34

3.8.5 Determination of Niacin 35

3.9 Estimation of mineral elements 35

3.9.1 Preparation of Samples 35

3.9.2 Zinc 35

3.9.3 Iron 36




CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT        38                                                                                       

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION, SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMEDATION

5.1 Discussion 51

5.2 Summary and Conclusion 53

5.3 Recommendation  54

REFFERENCES 

APPENDICES 












LIST OF TABLE

Table Title Page 

 Medicinal plant studied 41

 Preliminary phytochemical screening of the leave of T.tetraptera 42

 Quantitative estimation of  crude phytochemical components of the leave of 

T. tetraptera 43

 Characterization identification of bacteria isolates 44

Antimicrobial activity of leaf extract of T. tetraptera 45

Anti- Nutrient composition of leaves of T. tetraptera 46

Proximate composition of  Uyayak ( Tetrapluera tetraptera)              47

Percentage of vitamins in the leaves of T.tetraptera 48

Elemental composition of leaves of T. tetraptera                                              49

GCMS analysis of the phytochemical components of the leave of T. tetraptera. 50                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                   











LIST OF FIGURES

FIG.               TITLE.                                                                                                            PAGE

 1                Structure of Saponin.                                                                                       12

 2.              Structures of some Flavonoid.                                                                          13 

 3a.            Structures of Hydrolysable Tannins.                                                               14

 3b.             Structures of Condensed Tannins.                                                                  15

 4.               Structures of some Phenolics.                                                                           16

 5.                Structures of Some Alkaloids.                                                                         18

 6.          GCMS analysis of phytochemical components of the leave of T. tetraptera.     51

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APA

Viky, S (2018). Antimicrobial screening , nutrients profile and Pyhtochemical analysis of the leaf extracts of Tetrapluera tetraptera. Afribary.com: Retrieved February 28, 2021, from https://afribary.com/works/antimicrobial-screening-nutrients-profile-and-petrochemical-analysis-of-the-leaf-extracts-of-tetrapluera-tetraptera

MLA 8th

Silvar, Viky. "Antimicrobial screening , nutrients profile and Pyhtochemical analysis of the leaf extracts of Tetrapluera tetraptera" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 24 Dec. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/antimicrobial-screening-nutrients-profile-and-petrochemical-analysis-of-the-leaf-extracts-of-tetrapluera-tetraptera . Accessed 28 Feb. 2021.

MLA7

Silvar, Viky. "Antimicrobial screening , nutrients profile and Pyhtochemical analysis of the leaf extracts of Tetrapluera tetraptera". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 24 Dec. 2018. Web. 28 Feb. 2021. < https://afribary.com/works/antimicrobial-screening-nutrients-profile-and-petrochemical-analysis-of-the-leaf-extracts-of-tetrapluera-tetraptera >.

Chicago

Silvar, Viky. "Antimicrobial screening , nutrients profile and Pyhtochemical analysis of the leaf extracts of Tetrapluera tetraptera" Afribary.com (2018). Accessed February 28, 2021. https://afribary.com/works/antimicrobial-screening-nutrients-profile-and-petrochemical-analysis-of-the-leaf-extracts-of-tetrapluera-tetraptera