The research investigated the root-cause of the 2013-2014 unrests witnessed by communities in
Makurdi and environs while examining the effects on the welfare of lives and livelihoods.
Substantially, the study assessed the response and preparedness, adaptation and resilience
strategies of communities to the event aiming at proffering possible solutions. Data sourced were
drawn from primary and secondary sources; questionnaire and oral interviews from the field and
State Emergency Management Agency and the Red Cross Benue State while analysis was done
using descriptive statistical modes. Sample methods employed was stratified random sampling,
while size was selected using simple random sampling with replacement, aiding the
administration of questionnaire to 300 respondents drawn from four different wards of the two
selected strata to represent sample frame of 300,377. Findings showed that most wards within the
study area have experienced such event at least not less than once. 89.4% and 10.6% of the total
sample signified being affected not less than one time and not above five times respectively;
revelation by findings attributed the root cause of the event to economic (major cause); indigene-
settler and herder-farmer boundary disputes or disagreements: 53.3%; 52.3%; 46.7%
respectively. Results further showed the toll of event on lives and livelihoods to be unbearable,
especially on farmstead dwellings and areas with close proximity to farm fields. Findings
showed that a major factor influencing the events in recent times is economical. The clash
exhibits more element of boundary disputs between farmer and herder across the communities, a
quest to protect livelihood system. Imapct of these have rendered most dwellers, much of which
resides at the farmstead stratum of the study area helpless, while spills, mostly affects the
residential parts. Despite police patrols eixsts concurrently, the capacity to sustainably manage
the trends in event is ineffective as equipments are lacking and/or inadequate. Findings also
showed that communities preparedness and response is more-or-less weak due to the turnout of
event, as attackers posses guns, which the communities were not prepared for, hence the
resultant high personal assets loss; large number of displaced people; low harvest output;
disruptions of other trading activities and consequently the resultant weak resilience.
Conclusions drawn indicate that despite existing longterm interlationships between farmers and
herders within and around the communities in Makurdi, and misunderstanding resulting from
socioeconomic interactions, the indiscriminate migration characteristics of the herders and
despirations for sustenance of livelihoods systems on both sides (farmers and herders) appears to
be a threatening factor to achieving a sustained peaceful socio-interaction and symbiotic
economic relationships. In order to forestall future occurrence, grazing reserves and routs should
mapped out, and strict prnalties be administred to deal with defaulters.
Daniel, O (2018). ASSESSMENT OF COMMUNITY PREPAREDNESS RESPONSE AND ADAPTATION STRATEGIES TO THE 2013-2014 GUNMEN ATTACKS IN MAKURDI AND ENVIRONS. Afribary.com: Retrieved August 25, 2019, from https://afribary.com/works/assessment-of-community-preparedness-response-and-adaptation-strategies-to-the-2013-2014-gunmen-attacks-in-makurdi-and-environs
OKIBE, Daniel. "ASSESSMENT OF COMMUNITY PREPAREDNESS RESPONSE AND ADAPTATION STRATEGIES TO THE 2013-2014 GUNMEN ATTACKS IN MAKURDI AND ENVIRONS" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 05 Nov. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/assessment-of-community-preparedness-response-and-adaptation-strategies-to-the-2013-2014-gunmen-attacks-in-makurdi-and-environs . Accessed 25 Aug. 2019.
OKIBE, Daniel. "ASSESSMENT OF COMMUNITY PREPAREDNESS RESPONSE AND ADAPTATION STRATEGIES TO THE 2013-2014 GUNMEN ATTACKS IN MAKURDI AND ENVIRONS". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 05 Nov. 2018. Web. 25 Aug. 2019. < https://afribary.com/works/assessment-of-community-preparedness-response-and-adaptation-strategies-to-the-2013-2014-gunmen-attacks-in-makurdi-and-environs >.
OKIBE, Daniel. "ASSESSMENT OF COMMUNITY PREPAREDNESS RESPONSE AND ADAPTATION STRATEGIES TO THE 2013-2014 GUNMEN ATTACKS IN MAKURDI AND ENVIRONS" Afribary.com (2018). Accessed August 25, 2019. https://afribary.com/works/assessment-of-community-preparedness-response-and-adaptation-strategies-to-the-2013-2014-gunmen-attacks-in-makurdi-and-environs