ASSESSMENT OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF HEAVY METALS IN BONNY RIVER, NIGERIA

The MasterMind Project Ugboaja Ifeoma 109 PAGES (16694 WORDS) Thesis
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ABSTRACT

The study investigated heavy metal levels in the Bonny River. Water and sediment samples, collected at four major sites selected along the river course, were analyzed for heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Ni, Cd, Cu, and As) using standard methods. The pH in water was higher (7.94) than in sediment and EPA standards (6.5-7.5) and in water; it was lower than the recommended values for EPA and WHO. Descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation were used to analyze data at P<0.05. The following range of values were obtained for Pb (0.01-0.14mg/I), Zn (0.16-0.21mg/I), Ni (0.00-0.006mg/I), Cd (0.00- 0.005mg/I), Cr (0.031-0.165mg/I), Cu (0.006-0.219mg/I) and As (0.032- 0.37mg/I) in water samples across the sites. Maximum levels of As (0.037mg/I), Cr (0.165mg/I) and Cd (0.005mg/I) obtained at downstream locations exceeded regulatory standards. The relative abundance was in the order Zn>As>Cu>Pb>Cr>Cd>Ni. In sediments, values were low (0.08-023mg/kg for Pb, 0.22-0.53mg/kg for Zn, 0.01-0.041mg/kg for Ni, 0.022-0.084mg/kg for Cd, 0.095-0.215mg/kg for Cr, 0.023-0.32mg/kg for Cu and 0.03-0.086mg/kg for As and in relative order of As>Zn>Pb>Cu>Cr>Cd>Ni. Significant positive correlation at P>0.05 was observed between heavy metals in water and sediment, Ni & As (+0.925**), Cd & Cr (+0.787*), Ni & Cu (+0.729*), Cu & As (+0.710*). Heavy metal pollution index for water ahead a maximum value (0.67) at downstream location and was below the critical index value of 100. Contamination factor (CF) for sediment revealed that heavy metals shoed low (CF<1) contamination. Downstream values were generally higher than upstream ones and exceeded WHO standards. It was recommended among that measures should be put in place by relevant authorities to regulate the indiscriminate dumping of domestic waste and untreated industrial effluents into the Bonny River.

Keywords: Heavy metals, Bonny River Nigeria 

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APA

The MasterMind, P (2021). ASSESSMENT OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF HEAVY METALS IN BONNY RIVER, NIGERIA. Afribary.com: Retrieved March 03, 2021, from https://afribary.com/works/assessment-of-the-distribution-of-heavy-metals-in-bonny-river-nigeria

MLA 8th

Project, The MasterMind. "ASSESSMENT OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF HEAVY METALS IN BONNY RIVER, NIGERIA" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 22 Feb. 2021, https://afribary.com/works/assessment-of-the-distribution-of-heavy-metals-in-bonny-river-nigeria . Accessed 03 Mar. 2021.

MLA7

Project, The MasterMind. "ASSESSMENT OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF HEAVY METALS IN BONNY RIVER, NIGERIA". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 22 Feb. 2021. Web. 03 Mar. 2021. < https://afribary.com/works/assessment-of-the-distribution-of-heavy-metals-in-bonny-river-nigeria >.

Chicago

Project, The MasterMind. "ASSESSMENT OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF HEAVY METALS IN BONNY RIVER, NIGERIA" Afribary.com (2021). Accessed March 03, 2021. https://afribary.com/works/assessment-of-the-distribution-of-heavy-metals-in-bonny-river-nigeria