Comparative Analysis of Soil Quality in Abam Ama and Abuloma, Rivers State

The MasterMind Project Young Silverline Adoki 95 PAGES (20583 WORDS) Thesis
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ABSTRACT

This study involved proximate analyses of eight soil samples taken from playground, open space, relic farmlands and road within an average distance of 500m from each other in two communities (Abam Ama a neighbouring community of Port Harcourt Refinery experiencing legacy emissions and Abuloma a marine/industrial community in the Trans Amadi Industrial layout of Port Harcourt Local Government Area of Rivers State. The study examines the spatial variation of soil characteristics identifying if levels are distributed evenly by looking at indicators of change, i.e. pH or to identify if soil leaching has occurred in relation to the concentration of the following heavy metals copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and manganese (Mn) as well as the concentration of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH). In addition accessing the impact of past industrial activity on the soil quality. Methods used included systematic sampling to collect a total of 8 samples from four transects 0-15cm.. Samples were analyzed in the laboratory for concentrations of Cu, Mn, As, Al, Zn and Pb using acid digestion followed by an ICP-OES Varian 725-ES.The study indicates the soil pH to be acidic in nature affecting mobilization of metals and their ability to leach through the soil profile. There is spatial variation of heavy metal concentrations and contamination between Abam Ama and Abuloma but not much within each community The test of variance of heavy metals, and other edaphic variables measured such as CEC and TPH at the various sampling locations in Abam Ama (Okrika) and Abuloma (Port Harcourt) using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that the parameters differed significantly in their means at P<0.05 [F (cal 4.820)> F (Crit = 3.89)]. The study concludes metal contamination and soil leaching varies spatially due to the following soil characteristics; pH, geology, habitat, and anthropogenic influences from industry. Children are more at risk to heavy metal impact that adults and the people of Abuloma are more predisposed to pollution than Abam Ama because of the concentration industrial activities.

Keywords: Soil quality; Heavy metals; Pollution; Hydrocarbon; Abam Ama; Abuloma. 


TABLE OF CONTENT

Certification------------------------------------------------------- i

Declaration--------------------------------------------------------- ii

Dedication--------------------------------------------------------- iii

Acknowledgments------------------------------------------------ iv

Abstract------------------------------------------------------------- v

Table of Contents------------------------------------------------- vi

List of Figures ------------------------------------------------------ x

List of Tables-------------------------------------------------------- xi 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

Background to the study----------------------- 1

Statement of the Problem-------------------- 4

Aim and Objectives of the Study-------------- 8

Hypotheses--------------------------------------- 9

Significance and Justification of the study----

Scope of Study (Limitations) -------------------9 9 

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW/CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

2.1 Soil Contamination---------------------------------------------------

  1. 2.1.1  Effects of organic contamination on soil biota-------------------

  2. 2.1.2  Effects of Municipal Solid Waste on SOil--------------------------

  1. 2.1.2.1  Effects of MSW on soil microorganisms----------------------------

  2. 2.1.2.2  Soil contamination on agriculture-----------------------------------

2.2 Heavy Metals--------------------------------------------------------

  1. 2.2.1  Iron-----------------------------------------------------------------------

  2. 2.2.2  Cadmium----------------------------------------------------------------

  3. 2.2.3  Lead----------------------------------------------------------------------

  4. 2.2.4  Zinc--------------------------------------------------------------------

2.3 Impacts of oil spillage on the environment------------------------

  1. 2.3.1  Air Pollution-------------------------------------------------------------

  2. 2.3.2  Water Contamination-----------------------------------------------------

2.3.2.1 Marine Contamination-------------------------------------------------

2.3.2.2 Fresh water and Groundwater Contamination-------------- 28

2.4 Institutional Framework----------------------------------------- 28

2.4.1 National Environmental Policy--------------------------------- 28 

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHOD OF STUDY

3.1 Study Area----------------------------------------------------------- 31

3.1.1 Physiographic/Geomorphologic Setting---------------------- 35

3.1.2 Geology/Hydrogeology---------------------------------------- 37

3.1.3 Climate and Vegetation------------------------------------- 38

3.1.4 Population and Economic Activities--------------------- 39

3.2 Nature and Sources of Data----------------------------- 39 

3.2.1 Primary Data Sources ----------------------------------- 39

3.2.2 Secondary Data Sources--------------------------------- 40 

3.3 Sample Population, Sample Size and Sampling Techniques 40

3.4 Instrumentation/method of collection of Water Sample ----- 41

3.5 Laboratory Analyses-------------------------------------- 41 

3.5.1 Determination of pH------------------------------------- 41

3.5.2 Determination of Conductivity--------------------------- 41

3.5.3 Determination of Heavy Metals------------------------- 42

3.5.4 Determination of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon------ 42

3.5.5 Determination of Cation Exchange Capacity---------- 43 

3.6 Lab Analysis (Physical/Geotechnics)----------- 44

3.7 Statistical Analysis-------------------------------------- 45 

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1 PH and Heavy Metal Concentration in Soil--------------------------- 46

4.2 Gradation (Grain Size Analysis of Soil) ----------------------------- 50

4.3. Testing of Hypotheses---------------------------------------------- 60

  1. 4.3.1  Hypothesis one------------------------------------------------------- 60

  2. 4.3.2  Statistical Output------------------------------------------------------------- 62

4.4 Discussion ------------------------------------------------------------------ 64

  1. 4.4.1  Heavy Metal/TPH Sources & Spatial Variability---------------------- 66

  2. 4.4.2  Pollution Threat and People at Risk in the Study Area------------- 71

    CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

    1. 5.1  Summary and Conclusions-------------------------------------------------- 74

    2. 5.2  Recommendations----------------------------------------------------- 75

    References............................................................... 77

    Appendices............................................................ 

LIST OF FIGURES

3.1 A: Map of the Study Area – Port Harcourt LGA.................... 32 3.1B: MapoftheStudyArea–OkrikaLGA............................ 32

  1. 3.2:  1986 Landuse/Landcover image of the Study Areas.............. 33

  2. 3.3:  2013 Landuse/Landcover image of the Study Areas................ 34

  3. 3.4:  GIS Generated map of Study Transect.................................. 36

  1. 4.1  Particle Size Distribution Abam I..................................... 53

  2. 4.2  Particle Size Distribution Abam II................................... 54

  3. 4.3  Particle Size Distribution for Abuloma I............................ 55

  4. 4.4  Particle Size Distribution for Abuloma II......................... 56

  5. 4.5  Spatial Variation Plot for TPH and pH Heavy metal.......... 64

  6. 4.6  Spatial Variation plot for CEC, other metals.................. 65 

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APA

The MasterMind, P (2021). Comparative Analysis of Soil Quality in Abam Ama and Abuloma, Rivers State. Afribary.com: Retrieved February 27, 2021, from https://afribary.com/works/comparative-analysis-of-soil-quality-in-abam-ama-and-abuloma-rivers-state

MLA 8th

Project, The MasterMind. "Comparative Analysis of Soil Quality in Abam Ama and Abuloma, Rivers State" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 21 Feb. 2021, https://afribary.com/works/comparative-analysis-of-soil-quality-in-abam-ama-and-abuloma-rivers-state . Accessed 27 Feb. 2021.

MLA7

Project, The MasterMind. "Comparative Analysis of Soil Quality in Abam Ama and Abuloma, Rivers State". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 21 Feb. 2021. Web. 27 Feb. 2021. < https://afribary.com/works/comparative-analysis-of-soil-quality-in-abam-ama-and-abuloma-rivers-state >.

Chicago

Project, The MasterMind. "Comparative Analysis of Soil Quality in Abam Ama and Abuloma, Rivers State" Afribary.com (2021). Accessed February 27, 2021. https://afribary.com/works/comparative-analysis-of-soil-quality-in-abam-ama-and-abuloma-rivers-state