AN ASSESSMENT OF THE CURRENT ECOLOGICAL STATUS OF KAGOROTSONJE RIPARIAN FOREST, KADUNA STATE

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Abstract  
The current ecological status of the Kagoro/Tsonje riparian forest was assessed and  information  was  gathered  on  the  flora  and  bird  fauna,  water  quality parameters and soil status. Other data collections were phytoplankton types and population.    Physiocochemical  properties  of  the  soil  were  tested  .Modified Whittakker plots were used to evaluate woody species for density, diversity and similarity  measure.  One  metre  by  one  metre  quadrats  were  used  to  evaluate herbaceous plants for same parameters in addition to dry matter determination. Density and diversity of algal groups in the water were determined using methods described  by  APHA.,  while  physicochemical  parameters  of  water  were  tested instrumentally and by laboratory procedures. Results showed that the population of the woody plants in this riparian forest had declined within the period of one year of study. The forest had a woody population of 336 plants in the encroached area per hectare and 97 woody plants in the farmed area per hectare before the farming  season.  After  the  farming  season,  the  population  of  woody  plants decreased to 121 and 31 respectively. As a result of the disturbances of the forest, the important Avian species  Vannellus supercilliosus, Chrysococyx flavigularis, Cassypha natalensis and Camphephage quiscalina which made the  forest to be known for its ornithological importance were not sighted at the time this study was  undertaken.  The  result  of  the  water  analysis  showed  abundance  of phytoplakton and  Baccillariophyta as the highest algal division at all seasons. The population of this division in the wet season was higher than the dry season [119 and 36] respectively. This trend was similar for Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta and  Euglenophyta.  Soil  particle  size  of  the  riparian  forest  showed  a  non significant (P> 0.05) difference between farmed and encroached forest segments indicating the variability of soils in a riparian area. The organic carbon content also showed a significant (P < 0.05) difference.  
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page   -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  i   Declaration  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  ii Certification   -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  iii Dedication  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  iv Acknowledgements  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  v   Abstract  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  vii Table of Content  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  viii List of Tables  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  xii List of figures  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  xiii List of Plates   -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  xiv   

CHAPTER ONE 1.0  Introduction -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  1 1.1  Statement of the Problem -  -  -  -  -  -  3 1.2  Justification -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  4 1.3  Aim of the Study  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  4 1.4  Objective  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  5 1.5  Hypothesis  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  5 
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CHAPTER TWO 2.0  Review of Related Literature  -  -  -  -  -  6 2.1  Introduction -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  6 2.2  Riparian Plant Communities  -  -  -  -  -  9 2.3  The Soils of Kagoro/Tsonje Forest  -  -  -  -  10 2.4  Riparian Animal Communities  -  -  -  -  -  11 2.5  Aquatic Communities  -  -  -  -  -  -  13 2.6  Effects of Riparian Cover on Stream Water Chemistry  -  18 2.7  Impact of Human Activity in Riparian Areas -  -  -  20 2.8  Importance of Riparian Forest  -  -  -  -  -  22

CHAPTER THREE 3.0  Material and Methods  -  -  -  -  -  -  26 3.1  Study Area  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  26 3.2  Vegetation Area  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  26 3.3  Avian Study -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  28 3.4  Water Samples  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  28 3.5  Soil Samples  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  28 3.6  Flora and Fauna Analysis -  -  -  -  -  -  29 3.7     Data Analysis  -  -  -   -         -         -        -     30 
  xCHAPTER FOUR 4.0  Results  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  31 4.1  Density of Woody Plants in Areas of Riparian  -  -  31 4.2  Basal Area (Stem Cover) -  -  -  -  -  -  31 4.3  Woody Plant Wilding Population  -  -  -  -  33 4.4  Dry Matter Yield  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  35 4.5   Avi Fauna Occurrence in Kagoro/Tsonje Riparian Forest  -  37  4.6  Water Physicochemical Parameters  -  -  -  -  39 4.7  Algal Groups and Populations with Seasons  -  -  -  40   4.8  Soil Physicochemical Characteristics  -  -  -  -  42 

 CHAPTER FIVE 5.0  Discussion  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  47   5.1  Woody Plants Population   -  -  -  -  -  47   5.2  Herbage Biomass  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  49   5.3  Soil Physical Characteristics  -  -  -  -  -  49   5.4  Soil Chemical Characteristics  -  -  -  -  -  50   5.5  Bird Fauna Occurrence Population  -  -  -  -  51   5.6  Physicochemical Characteristics of Riparian Stream Water-  52   5.7  Phytoplankton Abundance and Diversity  -  -  -  54   
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CHAPTER SIX       6.0  Summary and Conclusion  -  -  -  -  -  55   6.1  Recommendation  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  57     References   -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  59   Appendices  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  67 
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APA

Sino, W (2019). AN ASSESSMENT OF THE CURRENT ECOLOGICAL STATUS OF KAGOROTSONJE RIPARIAN FOREST, KADUNA STATE. Afribary.com: Retrieved September 18, 2019, from https://afribary.com/works/bsc-an-assessment-of-the-current-ecological-status-of-kagorotsonje-riparian-forest-kaduna-states

MLA 8th

World, Sino. "AN ASSESSMENT OF THE CURRENT ECOLOGICAL STATUS OF KAGOROTSONJE RIPARIAN FOREST, KADUNA STATE" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 22 Aug. 2019, https://afribary.com/works/bsc-an-assessment-of-the-current-ecological-status-of-kagorotsonje-riparian-forest-kaduna-states . Accessed 18 Sep. 2019.

MLA7

World, Sino. "AN ASSESSMENT OF THE CURRENT ECOLOGICAL STATUS OF KAGOROTSONJE RIPARIAN FOREST, KADUNA STATE". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 22 Aug. 2019. Web. 18 Sep. 2019. < https://afribary.com/works/bsc-an-assessment-of-the-current-ecological-status-of-kagorotsonje-riparian-forest-kaduna-states >.

Chicago

World, Sino. "AN ASSESSMENT OF THE CURRENT ECOLOGICAL STATUS OF KAGOROTSONJE RIPARIAN FOREST, KADUNA STATE" Afribary.com (2019). Accessed September 18, 2019. https://afribary.com/works/bsc-an-assessment-of-the-current-ecological-status-of-kagorotsonje-riparian-forest-kaduna-states