CHANGES IN SOME HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN DIABETIC RATS TREATED WITH LEAF EXTRACT OF TERMINALIA CATAPPA (INDIAN ALMOND) AND NON-STEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS (NSAIDs)

Abstract
The changes in some haematological parameters in alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with Terminalia catappa leaves extract and Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) was studied. 54 male albino wister rats were selected into nine (9) groups of six (6) rats each. Diabetes was induced intraperitoneally to the test groups with 150mg/kg BW of alloxan monohydrate and the experiment lasted for 14 days. Group 1 was control which received 1mg/kg of deionized water, group 2 was extract treated control group and was given 130mg/kg per body weight (BW) of Terminalia catappa leaves extract, group 3 was diabetic control group and received 1mg/kg BW of deionized  water, group 4 being diabetic treated with extract was given 130mg/kg BW of T. catappa leaves extract, group 5 was diabetic treated with  aspirin received 30mg/kg BW of aspirin, group 6 was diabetic treated with meloxicam received 2mg/kg BW of meloxicam, group 7 which was diabetic treated with combination of the extract and aspirin received 130mg/kg BW extract and 30mg/kg BW of aspirin, group 8 which were diabetic treated with extract and meloxicam were administered with 130mg/kg BW of extract and 2mg/kg BW of meloxicam, group 9 being diabetic treated with insulin was given 0.75µ/kg BW of exogenous insulin. Blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture and analyzed using Automated Analyzer (Model BC-5300). The results showed that diabetes-induced increase in WBC count was reduced by the extract and aspirin but no significant change was seen in the meloxicam treated groups. There was reduction also, in neutrophil, eosinophil and basophil in extract, NSAID and insulin treated groups when compared with diabetic control. Again, the platelet count was increased in extract and aspirin without any significant change in meloxicam treated groups compared to diabetic and control groups. This shows that the extract could ameliorate inflammation in diabetes and its effect is similar to that of aspirin.


TABLE OF CONTENT

Title                                                                                                      Page

Title Page                    i

Dedication                  ii

Declaration                 iii

Certification                         iv

Acknowledgement                              v

Table of Content                       vii

List of Table                              xi

List of Figures                           xii

Abstract                      xiii

CHAPTER ONE

1.1     Introduction                              1

1.2     Scope of Study              -        4

1.3     Aim of Study                -        4

1.4     Significance of the Study                       5

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     Literature Review          -        6

2.1     Haematopoiesis             -        6

2.2     Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCs)           -        -        6

2.3     Locations of Blood Formation               8

2.4     Maturation of Stem Cells                      8

2.5     Red Blood Cells (RBCs)                   9

2.5.1 Red Blood Cell Count             9

2.5.2  Red Blood Cell Parameters                   10

2.6     White Blood Cells                   -        12

2.6.1  Classes of White Blood Cells                13

2.6.2  White Blood Cell Count          16

2.7     Platelets or Thrombocytes                     18

2.7.1  Thrombopoiesis            -        18

2.7.2  Platelet Count               -        20

2.7.3  Thrombocytopenia                 20

2.8     Diabetes Mellitus          -        22

2.8.1  Types of Diabetes Mellitus                    23

2.8.2  Causes of Type II Diabetes Mellitus        -        -        24

2.8.3  Hematological Changes in Diabetic Conditions          25

2.8.4  Treatment Of Diabetes Mellitus (DM)          26

2.9     Terminalia catappa                 30

2.9.1  Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic and Modulatory Activity         -        -        34

2.9.2  Anti-Diabetic Activity            35

2.9.3  Hepatoprotective activity                      35

2.9.4  Anti-Parasitic and Anti-Fungal Activities          -        36

2.9.5  ACE Inhibitory Activity                   37

2.9.6  Anti-Ageing Activity              37

2.9.7  Anticancer Activity                 38

2.9.8  Toxicology                      39

2.10   ASPIRIN (Acetyl Salicylic Acid- ASA)        39

2.11   Meloxicam                       41

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

3.0     Materials and Apparatus Used                       43

3.1     Collection and Identification of Plant Material-          45

3.2     Preparation of Aqueous Extract                     45

3.3     Animal Preparation                45

3.4     Experimental Design              46

3.5     Diabetes Induction                  -        46

3.6     Extract Administration           47

3.7     Insulin Administration            47

3.8     Meloxicam Administration                    47

3.9     Aspirin Administration          47

3.10   Collection of Blood Sample                  48

3.11   Analysis of Blood Parameters               48

3.12    Statistical Analysis                48

CHAPTER FOUR : RESULTS

4.1     Red Blood Cell Count             49

4.2     White Blood Cell Count          51

4.3.    Platelet Count               -        53

4.4     Neutrophil Levels          -        55

4.5     Eosinophil Levels          -        55

4.6     Basophil Levels             -        56

4.7     Monocyte Levels           -        56

4.8     Lymphocyte Levels                 57

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1    Discussion                       59

5.2     Conclusion                      62

5.3     Recommandations                  -        63

REFERENCES                         64

 

LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.1:   Table showing grouping of animals         -        46

Table 4.1 :  Showing effects aqueous extracts of Terminalia catappa leaves, Aspirin, meloxicam and insulin on Differential White Blood Cell Count of Albino wister rats.    -        -        -58



 

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2.1 : Picture of Terminalia catappa leaves        -        - 31

Figure 4.1.  Red blood cells in diabetic rats treated with extract, aspirin, meloxicam and insulin compared with control. Values are Mean ± SEM        -             - 50

Figure 4.2. White blood cell count in diabetic rats treated with extract, aspirin, meloxicam and insulin compared with control. Values are Mean ± SEM. a = p
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APA

Ambrose, F. & Udeme, F (2019). CHANGES IN SOME HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN DIABETIC RATS TREATED WITH LEAF EXTRACT OF TERMINALIA CATAPPA (INDIAN ALMOND) AND NON-STEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS (NSAIDs). Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/changes-in-some-hematological-parameters-in-diabetic-rats-treated-with-leaf-extract-of-terminalia-catappa-indian-almond-and-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-nsaids

MLA 8th

Ambrose, Franklin, and Franklin Udeme "CHANGES IN SOME HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN DIABETIC RATS TREATED WITH LEAF EXTRACT OF TERMINALIA CATAPPA (INDIAN ALMOND) AND NON-STEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS (NSAIDs)" Afribary. Afribary, 09 May. 2019, https://afribary.com/works/changes-in-some-hematological-parameters-in-diabetic-rats-treated-with-leaf-extract-of-terminalia-catappa-indian-almond-and-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-nsaids. Accessed 28 May. 2024.

MLA7

Ambrose, Franklin, and Franklin Udeme . "CHANGES IN SOME HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN DIABETIC RATS TREATED WITH LEAF EXTRACT OF TERMINALIA CATAPPA (INDIAN ALMOND) AND NON-STEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS (NSAIDs)". Afribary, Afribary, 09 May. 2019. Web. 28 May. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/changes-in-some-hematological-parameters-in-diabetic-rats-treated-with-leaf-extract-of-terminalia-catappa-indian-almond-and-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-nsaids >.

Chicago

Ambrose, Franklin and Udeme, Franklin . "CHANGES IN SOME HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN DIABETIC RATS TREATED WITH LEAF EXTRACT OF TERMINALIA CATAPPA (INDIAN ALMOND) AND NON-STEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS (NSAIDs)" Afribary (2019). Accessed May 28, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/changes-in-some-hematological-parameters-in-diabetic-rats-treated-with-leaf-extract-of-terminalia-catappa-indian-almond-and-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-nsaids