CHANGES IN SOME HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN DIABETIC RATS TREATED WITH LEAF EXTRACT OF TERMINALIA CATAPPA (INDIAN ALMOND) AND NON-STEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS (NSAIDs)

Franklin Ambrose 82 PAGES (15093 WORDS) Project
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TABLE OF CONTENT

Title                                                                                                      Page

Title Page    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        i

Dedication  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        ii

Declaration -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        iii

Certification         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        iv

Acknowledgement         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        v

Table of Content  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        vii

List of Table         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        xi

List of Figures      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        xii

Abstract      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        xiii

CHAPTER ONE

1.1     Introduction         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        1

1.2     Scope of Study     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        4

1.3     Aim of Study       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        4

1.4     Significance of the Study         -        -        -        -        -        -        5

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     Literature Review -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        6

2.1     Haematopoiesis    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        6

2.2     Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCs)    -        -        -        -        -        6

2.3     Locations of Blood Formation -        -        -        -        -        -        8

2.4     Maturation of Stem Cells        -        -        -        -        -        -        8

2.5     Red Blood Cells (RBCs)          -        -        -        -        -        -        -        9

2.5.1 Red Blood Cell Count    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        9

2.5.2  Red Blood Cell Parameters     -        -        -        -        -        -        10

2.6     White Blood Cells          -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        12

2.6.1  Classes of White Blood Cells  -        -        -        -        -        -        13

2.6.2  White Blood Cell Count -        -        -        -        -        -        -        16

2.7     Platelets or Thrombocytes       -        -        -        -        -        -        18

2.7.1  Thrombopoiesis   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        18

2.7.2  Platelet Count      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        20

2.7.3  Thrombocytopenia        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        20

2.8     Diabetes Mellitus -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        22

2.8.1  Types of Diabetes Mellitus      -        -        -        -        -        -        23

2.8.2  Causes of Type II Diabetes Mellitus -        -        -        -        -        24

2.8.3  Hematological Changes in Diabetic Conditions   -        -        -        25

2.8.4  Treatment Of Diabetes Mellitus (DM)        -        -        -        -        26

2.9     Terminalia catappa        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        30

2.9.1  Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic and Modulatory Activity         -        -        34

2.9.2  Anti-Diabetic Activity   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        35

2.9.3  Hepatoprotective activity        -        -        -        -        -        -        35

2.9.4  Anti-Parasitic and Anti-Fungal Activities   -        -        -        -        36

2.9.5  ACE Inhibitory Activity          -        -        -        -        -        -        -        37

2.9.6  Anti-Ageing Activity     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        37

2.9.7  Anticancer Activity        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        38

2.9.8  Toxicology -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        39

2.10   ASPIRIN (Acetyl Salicylic Acid- ASA)      -        -        -        -        39

2.11   Meloxicam  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        41

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

3.0     Materials and Apparatus Used         -        -        -        -        -        -        43

3.1     Collection and Identification of Plant Material-   -        -        -        45

3.2     Preparation of Aqueous Extract       -        -        -        -        -        -        45

3.3     Animal Preparation       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        45

3.4     Experimental Design     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        46

3.5     Diabetes Induction         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        46

3.6     Extract Administration  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        47

3.7     Insulin Administration   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        47

3.8     Meloxicam Administration      -        -        -        -        -        -        47

3.9     Aspirin Administration -        -        -        -        -        -        -        47

3.10   Collection of Blood Sample    -        -        -        -        -        -        48

3.11   Analysis of Blood Parameters -        -        -        -        -        -        48

3.12    Statistical Analysis       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        48

CHAPTER FOUR : RESULTS

4.1     Red Blood Cell Count    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        49

4.2     White Blood Cell Count -        -        -        -        -        -        -        51

4.3.    Platelet Count      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        53

4.4     Neutrophil Levels -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        55

4.5     Eosinophil Levels -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        55

4.6     Basophil Levels    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        56

4.7     Monocyte Levels  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        56

4.8     Lymphocyte Levels        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        57

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1    Discussion  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        59

5.2     Conclusion -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        62

5.3     Recommandations         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        63

REFERENCES    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        64


 

LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.1:   Table showing grouping of animals  -        -        -        -        46

 

Table 4.1 :  Showing effects aqueous extracts of Terminalia catappa

leaves, Aspirin, meloxicam and insulin on Differential

White Blood Cell Count of Albino wister rats.    -        -        -58


 

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2.1 : Picture of Terminalia catappa leaves -        -        -        -        - 31

 

Figure 4.1.  Red blood cells in diabetic rats treated with extract, aspirin,

meloxicam and insulin compared with control.

Values are Mean ± SEM -        -        -        -                  -        - 50

 

Figure 4.2. White blood cell count in diabetic rats treated with extract,

aspirin, meloxicam and insulin compared with control.

Values are Mean ± SEM. a = p<0.05 vs non-diabetic

control, b = p<0.05 vs diabetic control group, c = p<0.05

vs extract treated group -         -        -        -        -        -        52

 

Figure 4.3. White blood cell count in diabetic rats treated with extract,

aspirin, meloxicam and insulin. Values are Mean ± SEM

p<0.05,  a = test vs non diabetic control, b = test vs diabetic

control group, c = test vs extract treated group    -        -        -  54


                                                                Abstract

The changes in some haematological parameters in alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with Terminalia catappa leaves extract and Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) was studied. 54 male albino wister rats were selected into nine (9) groups of six (6) rats each. Diabetes was induced intraperitoneally to the test groups with 150mg/kg BW of alloxan monohydrate and the experiment lasted for 14 days. Group 1 was control which received 1mg/kg of deionized water, group 2 was extract treated control group and was given 130mg/kg per body weight (BW) of Terminalia catappa leaves extract, group 3 was diabetic control group and received 1mg/kg BW of deionized  water, group 4 being diabetic treated with extract was given 130mg/kg BW of T. catappa leaves extract, group 5 was diabetic treated with  aspirin received 30mg/kg BW of aspirin, group 6 was diabetic treated with meloxicam received 2mg/kg BW of meloxicam, group 7 which was diabetic treated with combination of the extract and aspirin received 130mg/kg BW extract and 30mg/kg BW of aspirin, group 8 which were diabetic treated with extract and meloxicam were administered with 130mg/kg BW of extract and 2mg/kg BW of meloxicam, group 9 being diabetic treated with insulin was given 0.75µ/kg BW of exogenous insulin. Blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture and analyzed using Automated Analyzer (Model BC-5300). The results showed that diabetes-induced increase in WBC count was reduced by the extract and aspirin but no significant change was seen in the meloxicam treated groups. There was reduction also, in neutrophil, eosinophil and basophil in extract, NSAID and insulin treated groups when compared with diabetic control. Again, the platelet count was increased in extract and aspirin without any significant change in meloxicam treated groups compared to diabetic and control groups. This shows that the extract could ameliorate inflammation in diabetes and its effect is similar to that of aspirin.


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APA

Franklin, A (2019). CHANGES IN SOME HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN DIABETIC RATS TREATED WITH LEAF EXTRACT OF TERMINALIA CATAPPA (INDIAN ALMOND) AND NON-STEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS (NSAIDs). Afribary.com: Retrieved May 19, 2019, from https://afribary.com/works/changes-in-some-hematological-parameters-in-diabetic-rats-treated-with-leaf-extract-of-terminalia-catappa-indian-almond-and-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-nsaids

MLA 8th

Ambrose, Franklin. "CHANGES IN SOME HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN DIABETIC RATS TREATED WITH LEAF EXTRACT OF TERMINALIA CATAPPA (INDIAN ALMOND) AND NON-STEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS (NSAIDs)" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 09 May. 2019, https://afribary.com/works/changes-in-some-hematological-parameters-in-diabetic-rats-treated-with-leaf-extract-of-terminalia-catappa-indian-almond-and-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-nsaids . Accessed 19 May. 2019.

MLA7

Ambrose, Franklin. "CHANGES IN SOME HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN DIABETIC RATS TREATED WITH LEAF EXTRACT OF TERMINALIA CATAPPA (INDIAN ALMOND) AND NON-STEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS (NSAIDs)". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 09 May. 2019. Web. 19 May. 2019. < https://afribary.com/works/changes-in-some-hematological-parameters-in-diabetic-rats-treated-with-leaf-extract-of-terminalia-catappa-indian-almond-and-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-nsaids >.

Chicago

Ambrose, Franklin. "CHANGES IN SOME HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN DIABETIC RATS TREATED WITH LEAF EXTRACT OF TERMINALIA CATAPPA (INDIAN ALMOND) AND NON-STEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS (NSAIDs)" Afribary.com (2019). Accessed May 19, 2019. https://afribary.com/works/changes-in-some-hematological-parameters-in-diabetic-rats-treated-with-leaf-extract-of-terminalia-catappa-indian-almond-and-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-nsaids