RENAL TISSUE AND SERUM IMMUNOGLOBULIN G OF HYPERTHYROID RATS

Akeem Bello 76 PAGES (12398 WORDS) Project
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ABSTRACT

There are several interactions between thyroid and kidney functions in health and disease states. Thyroid hormones affect renal development and physiology. Thyroid hormones have pre-renal and intrinsic renal effects by which they increase the renal blood flow and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Hyperthyroidism results in increase GFR as well as increased renin-angiotensin-aldosterone activation. This study was carried out to investigate changes in renal tissue and serum immunoglobulin G of hyperthyroid rats.

Twenty male Wistar rats weighing between 180-200g were divided into two groups: control rats and hyperthyroid rats. Animals in group A were given feed and distilled water while animals in group B were treated with 5ug/100g body weight of levothyroxine mixed with distilled water and feed , the administration lasted for 30 days. After the administration, the animals were sacrificed using cervical dislocation, blood and kidneys samples were collected. Serum level and kidney tissue level of thyroid stimulating hormone and immunoglobulin G were measured using enzyme link immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) method. Serum protein, Lipid profile, Urea and Creatinine level were measured using Spectrophotometry method. Measurement of oxidative stress markers like MDA, SOD and CAT level in blood serum and kidney tissues homogenate were measured using Spectrophotometry and histopathology of the kidney  tissue were also studied using H and E staining.

             The results obtained re-establish the fact that thyroid dysfunctions have significant effect on the renal functions and serum immunoglobulins (especially IgG) as hyperthyroid groups have lower levels of serum immunoglobulin G (25.00±1.71ng/ml) when compared to control groups (45.00±2.33ng/ml) and the level of IgG in kidney is increased in control (175.27±55.85ng/ml) when compared to the hyperthyroid group (601.25±232.25ng/ml) which was significant. The level of TSH is decreased in hyperthyroid group (25.44±2.12mIU/ml) compared to the control group (49.04±7.62mIU/ml) in serum) which was significant (p˂0.05) while the level of TSH is increased in control group (76.00±1.34mIU/ml) compared to the hyperthyroid group (20.20±0.20mIU/ml) in kidney tissue homogenate which was significant (p˂0.05). MDA was significantly increased in hyperthyroid rats in comparison with the control. Histological study revealed lysis of renal cells in hyperthyroid rats.

In Conclusion, the response of the immune system is important in maintaining the intergrity of the renal system during hyperthyroidism.

KEYWORDS: Hyperthyroid, Immunoglobulin G, Creatinine, Urea.

   

TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE PAGE                                                                                                                                i                     

CERTIFICATION                                                                                                                         ii

DEDICATION                                                                                                                              iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT                                                                                                            iv

ABSTRACT                                                                                                                                  v

TABLE OF CONTENT                                                                                                                vii

LIST OF TABLES                                                                                                                        xii

LIST OF FIGURES                                                                                                                      xiii

LIST OF PLATES                                                                                                                        xiv

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS                                                                                                     xv

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION                                                                                                             1

1.1        JUSTIFICATION                                                                                                               2

1.2       AIM AND OBJECTIVES                                                                                                  2

1.2.1    AIM                                                                                                                                     2

1.2.2    OBJECTIVES                                                                                                                                 2

CHAPTER TWO

2.0       LITERATURE REVIEW                                                                                                  3

2.1       THYROID GLAND                                                                                                          3

2.1.1    THYROID HORMONE SYNTHESIS                                                                             4

2.1.2     SECRETION AND TRANSPORT                                                                                  4

2.1.3   THYROID HORMONE METABOLISM                                                                         5

2.1.4    PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECT OF THYROID HORMONE                                                        7

2.2       HYPERTHYROIDISM                                                                                                     9

2.2.1    HYPERTHYRODISM CAUSES                                                                                     10

2.2.2     HYPERTHYRODISM RISK FACTORS                                                                       12

2.2.3    HYPERTHYRODISM SYMPTOMS                                                                                          13

2.3       TREATMENT OF OVERACTIVE THYROID                                                              13

2.3.1    ANTI THYROID DRUGS                                                                                                13

2.3.2    RADIOACTIVE IODINE                                                                                                 14

2.3.3    SURGICAL REMOVAL OF THE GLAND OR NODULES                                           15

2.4       PHYSIOLOGY OF THE KIDNEY                                                                                   15

2.4.1    FUNCTION OF THE KIDNEY                                                                                        16

2.4.2     EFFECTS OF THYROID HORMONES ON RENAL DEVELOPMENT                      17

2.4.3      EFFECTS OF THYROID HORMONES ON RENAL PHYSIOLOGY                         18

2.4.4    HYPERTHYROIDISM AND RENAL FUNCTION                                                        19

2.5       OXIDATIVE STRESS AND KIDNEY                                                                            21

2.6       UREA AND CREATININE                                                                                              22

2.6.1    UREA                                                                                                                                 22

2.6.2    CREATININE                                                                                                                               23

CHAPTER THREE

3.0       MATERIALS AND METHOD                                                                                         25

3.1       SITE OF THE EXPERIMENT                                                                                          25

3.2       EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS                                                                                         26

3.3       EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND PROTOCOL                                                            26

3.4       DETERMINATION OF BODY WEIGHT                                                                      28

3.5       BLOOD AND ORGAN COLLECTION                                                                         28

3.6       THYROID FUNCTION TEST                                                                                          28

3.6.1     SERUM COLLECTION AND PREPARATION                                                           28

3.6.2     TEST FOR THYROID STIMULATION HORMONE                                                   28

3.6.3     THYROXINE (T4) AND TRIIODOTHYRONINE (T3)                                                            29

3.7      BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS                                                                                          30

3.7.1     ESTIMATION OF SERUM LIPID PROFILE                                                                30

3.7.2     ESTIMATION OF OXIDATIVE STRESS BIOMAKERS                                                        30

3.7.3      ESTIMATION OF UREA AND CREATININE                                                           31

3.8         HISTOLOGICAL EXAMINATION                                                                               32

3.9         STATISTICAL ANALYSIS                                                                                           32

CHAPTER FOUR               

4.0       RESULTS                                                                                                                           33

4.1       INDUCTION OF HYPERTHYROIDISM   AND EVALUATION OF THYROID        33 STIMULATING HORMONE LEVEL

4.1.1    EVALUATION OF THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE LEVEL IN CONTROL33 AND HYPERTHYROID RAT

4.1.2    EVALUATION OF IMMUNOGLOBULINS G LEVEL IN THE CONTROL AND     36 HYPERTHYROID RAT

4.1.3   EVALUATION OF LIPID PROFILE AND PROTEIN PROFILE IN CONTROL AND39 HYPERTHYROID RAT

4.1.4   EVALUATION OF UREA AND CREATININE LEVEL IN THE CONTROL AND     42 HYPERTHYROID RAT

4.1.5    EVALUATION OF OXIDATIVE STRESS MARKER POST-INDUCTION OF          44 HYPERTHYROID IN KIDNEY TISSUE

4.2       HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF KIDNEY OF HYPERTHYROID      47 RATS

4.3        HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF KIDNEY OF CONTROL RATS       48        

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0    DISCUSSION, CONCLUSSION AND RECOMMENDATION                                    49                                                      

5.1   DISCUSSION                                                                                                                        49

5.2   CONCLUSION                                                                                                                      52

5.3   RECOMMENDATION                                                                                                         52

REFERENCES                                                                                                                        53-60

                                                

 

 

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APA

Akeem, B (2019). RENAL TISSUE AND SERUM IMMUNOGLOBULIN G OF HYPERTHYROID RATS. Afribary.com: Retrieved October 20, 2019, from https://afribary.com/works/undergraduate-project-1

MLA 8th

Bello, Akeem. "RENAL TISSUE AND SERUM IMMUNOGLOBULIN G OF HYPERTHYROID RATS" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 02 Aug. 2019, https://afribary.com/works/undergraduate-project-1 . Accessed 20 Oct. 2019.

MLA7

Bello, Akeem. "RENAL TISSUE AND SERUM IMMUNOGLOBULIN G OF HYPERTHYROID RATS". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 02 Aug. 2019. Web. 20 Oct. 2019. < https://afribary.com/works/undergraduate-project-1 >.

Chicago

Bello, Akeem. "RENAL TISSUE AND SERUM IMMUNOGLOBULIN G OF HYPERTHYROID RATS" Afribary.com (2019). Accessed October 20, 2019. https://afribary.com/works/undergraduate-project-1