Communities’ Awareness On Climate Change And Its Effects: A Case Study Of Trans Nzoia District, Kenya.

ABSTRACT

Global climate change is caused by the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the lower atmosphere that trap radiant heat thereby leading to an accelerated anthropogenic greenhouse effect that has huge negative global ramifications. Awareness levels on the very existence of the climate change issue is currently very low especially in areas considered to be most vulnerable to the anticipated changes thereby informing the research undertaken titled “Communities’ Awareness on Climate Change: A Case Study of Trans Nzoia District, Kenya” The scope of the study was defined and objectives set in line with the purpose of the study. Variables investigated and assessed in the field were the level of awareness of communities to climate change, its causes and observable evidences in the study area, the effects of climate change on the livelihoods and socio-economic activities of the communities under study and finally the government and international organization programmes put in place to help the communities with mitigation and adaptation of the climate change effects. A total sample size of 100 respondents (N=1 00) was chosen through systematic random sampling for community members such as farmers, pastoralists and community leaders at household levels which was the basic sampling unit and purposive sampling was used to select respondents from government departments such as extension officers and technical staff respondents from non-governmental and international organizations in the study area. Primary data was obtained through use of questionnaires, interviews, focus group discussions and literature reviews. The results of the study established that general awareness on the climate change issue was very low especially among adults with low levels of formal education thereby corresponding to similar research done by Gallup that ascertained that education levels serve as the best correlate of climate change awareness all over the world. The study also established the effects of climate change on the livelihoods and socio-economic welfare of communities in Trans Nzoia as having been negative with regard to the declining agricultural productivity especially in farming and Pastoralist activities which have been affected most in terms of failed harvests and death of livestock due to extended dry conditions, reduction in water quality and quantity, social dislocation in form of mass migrations due to search for arable land and pastures and finally increase in tropical infectious diseases such as malaria. The study also acknowledged that despite the presence of numerous governmental and international organization programmes in the study area aimed at promoting climate change mitigation and adaptation measures, the awareness apathy as to the dynamic nature ofthe climate phenomenon has not enabled the programmes to provide sufficient prevention and compensation of the adverse effects suffered by these vulnerable communities. The study concluded that lack of awareness of climate change issues compounded the severity of negative consequences experienced by the most vulnerable communities. Recommendations for reversing the negative conclusions such as raising awareness levels through introducing environmental education in school curricula, raising public awareness on climate change effects, establishing indigenous knowledge reservoir centre’s and finally adopting a needs based, locally oriented climate change mitigation and adaptation measures were made in accordance with the significance ofthe research study.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION•,~..

TABLE OF CONTENT

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

LIST OF FIGURES

DEFINITON OF TERMS xii

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 Background

1.2 Statement of the Problem 4

1.3 Objectives ofthe Study 5

1.3.1 General Objective 5

1.3.2 Specific Objectives 5

1.4 Research Questions 5

1.5 Purpose ofthe Study 6

1.6 ScopeoftheStudy 6

1.7 Significance of the Study 7

1.8 Conceptual Framework 9

V

CHAPTER ~~

LITERATURE REVIEW,,,.... ,,,, ,...,,,,,...,...~

2.1 Introduction .10

2.2 Local Knowledge and Awareness on Climate Change in East Africa 10

2.3 Global Attitudes towards Climate Change: (Case Study) 11

2.3.1 Climate Change: Awareness and Knowledge 11

2.3.2 Gauging Global Awareness of Climate Change 13

2.3.3 Big Emitters 13

2.3.4 Climate Consciousness in the Industrializing Nations 15

2.3.5 Perceived Global Threat Level of Climate Change 16

2.3.6 Conclusions and Implications 18

2.4 Causes of Climate Change 19

2.4.1 Plate Tectonics 19

2.4.2 Solar Output 19

2.4.3 Orbital Variations 20

2,4.4 Volcanism 20

2.4.5 Ocean Variability 20

2.4.6 Human Influences 21

2.5 Physical Evidence for Climate Change 21

2.6 Effects of Climate Change on Communities 22

2.6.1 Natural Disasters 22

2.6.2 Water Quality and Quantity 22

2.6.3 Food Security 22

2,6.4 Social Dislocation 23

2.6.5 Infectious Diseases 23

2.7 International Interventions on Climate Change 24

vi

CHAPTER THREE ...~..

3.1

STUDY

Introduction

AREA AND METHODOLOGY ~

26

3.2 Description of Study Area 26

3.2.2 Climate 27

3.3 Study population 27

3.4 Research Design 28

3.5 Sample Size and Sampling Techniques 28

3.6 Data Collection Methods 29

3.7 Data Collection Instruments 29

3.7.1 Questionnaires 29

3.7.2 Interviews 30

3.7.3 Observation 30

3.7.4 Focus Group Discussions 30

3.7.5 Literature Review 30

3.8 Data Processing and Analysis 31

3.9 Limitations of the Study 31

CHAPTER FOUR ..........•..•....... •........

FINDINGS, DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSIONS ~

4.1 Introduction 32

4.1.1 Summary of the Respondents 32

4.2 Communities’ awareness on Climate Change, its Causes and Observable Evidences

33

4.2.1 Gauging Awareness of Climate Change in Trans Nzoia 37

4.2.2 Educational Level and Climate Change (N=100) 37

4.3 Effects of Climate Change on Socio-Economic Activities of Communities 38

4.3.2 Farming 40

vii

4.3.3 Pastoralism .4~

4.3.4 Fishing and Forestry 42

4.4 Effects of Climate Change on the Livelihoods of Communities 43

4.4.1 Natural Disasters 43

4.4.2 Water Quality and Quantity 43

4.4.3 Social Dislocation 44

4.4.4 Infectious Diseases 44

4.5 Government and International.Organization Programmes on Climate Change

Adaptation and Mitigation 45

4.5.1 National Climate Change Activities Coordinating Committee (NCCACC) 46

4.5.2 Climate Network Africa (CNA) 47

4.5.3 African Centre for Technology Studies (ACTS) 47

4.5.4 Swedish Environment Institute (SEI) 48

4.5.5 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) 48

4.5.5.1 Mitigation Measures 49

4.5.5.2 Adaptation Measures 49

CHAPTER FIVE. . 50

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS,,,. ~

5.2 Conclusions 50

5.3 Recommendations 51

5.3.1 Environmental Education on Climate Change 51

5.3.2 Public Awareness and Sensitization on Climate Change Effects 52

5.3.3 Establishing Indigenous Knowledge Reservoir Centre’s 52

5.3.4 Promoting Local Needs Oriented Mitigation and Adaptation Measures 52

5.5.5 Changing Approaches on Combating Climate Change , 53

viii

~

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Appendix (i) Work Schedule

~

58

Appendix (ii) Budget 59

Appendix (iii) Research Questionnaire 60

Appendix (iv) Interview Guide 63

Appendix (v) Checklist for Researchers 65


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APA

Research, S. (2022). Communities’ Awareness On Climate Change And Its Effects: A Case Study Of Trans Nzoia District, Kenya.. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/communities-awareness-on-climate-change-and-its-effects-a-case-study-of-trans-nzoia-district-kenya

MLA 8th

Research, SSA "Communities’ Awareness On Climate Change And Its Effects: A Case Study Of Trans Nzoia District, Kenya." Afribary. Afribary, 30 Aug. 2022, https://afribary.com/works/communities-awareness-on-climate-change-and-its-effects-a-case-study-of-trans-nzoia-district-kenya. Accessed 14 Jul. 2024.

MLA7

Research, SSA . "Communities’ Awareness On Climate Change And Its Effects: A Case Study Of Trans Nzoia District, Kenya.". Afribary, Afribary, 30 Aug. 2022. Web. 14 Jul. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/communities-awareness-on-climate-change-and-its-effects-a-case-study-of-trans-nzoia-district-kenya >.

Chicago

Research, SSA . "Communities’ Awareness On Climate Change And Its Effects: A Case Study Of Trans Nzoia District, Kenya." Afribary (2022). Accessed July 14, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/communities-awareness-on-climate-change-and-its-effects-a-case-study-of-trans-nzoia-district-kenya