Bio-fuels are prominent in current discussions both as a solution to problems and as a creator of problems. They have promise as a substitute for fossil fuels, particularly petroleum as the raw material for transportation fuel. But bio-fuels also have pitfalls, especially when produced at a scale sufficient to replace a significant proportion of the world's use of petroleum. This controversial topic has attracted great political, economic and social attention because of its touching interest of the world significance during recent years.
This study focuses on the implication and relevance of corn fermentation on bio-fuel production with basic emphasis on bio ethanol which has gained special world recognition as it concerns it's utilization as an energy source in automobiles; it also addresses issues in the technology of producing raw materials for bio-fuels, which is the maize (corn) grain in this case and converting these raw materials into bio-fuels; resource constraints facing expansion of bio-fuel production and the demand for fuels. Special attention is given to the bio-fuel types that are used today or can be used in the future, their properties and characteristics and focuses on the evaluation and main economics, environmental and social impacts of bio-fuels measuring the pros and cons of their use in energy production the future of bio-fuels is also discussed.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents v
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Bio-fuels: Historical Perspective 1
1.3 Maize and the Maize plant 3
1.4 Fermentation and Fermenters 9
1.5 Key Distinctions between Bio-fuels and Hydrocarbon Based Fuels 15
2.1 Bio-Fuels 17
2.2 Categories of Bio-Fuels 17
2.3 Bio-Fuels Production Technology 19
2.4 Bio-Fuels: Sources and Extraction 21
2.5 Fed-Batch Simultaneous Saccharification and Ethanol Fermentation Of Corn 26
3.1 Economic Impacts of Bio-fuels Production 28
3.2 Environmental Impacts of Bio-fuels Production 29
3.3 Social Impacts of Bio-fuels Production 31
3.4 Barriers Affecting Bio-fuels Trade and Sustainable Development 32
3.5 New Technologies in Bio-ethanol Production 35
4.1 Limitations of Bio-Ethanol Production 38
4.2 Conclusion 38
LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE 1: A Mature Maize Plant 6
FIGURE 2: Simplified Scheme (a) Batch (b) Fed-batch (c) Continuous Cultivation 12
FIGURE 3: Diagram of a Fermenter: Three Multi-bladed Impellers 15
FIGURE 4: Sources of Main Liquid Bio-fuels for Automobiles 25
FIGURE 5: Flow Chart for the Production of Bio-ethanol from Cereal Grain 27
Jude, N (2018). CORN FERMENTATION AND ITS IMPORTANCE IN BIOFUEL PRODUCTION. Afribary.com: Retrieved June 06, 2020, from https://afribary.com/works/corn-fermentation-and-its-importance-in-biofuel-production
Nwaji, Jude. "CORN FERMENTATION AND ITS IMPORTANCE IN BIOFUEL PRODUCTION" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 30 Apr. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/corn-fermentation-and-its-importance-in-biofuel-production . Accessed 06 Jun. 2020.
Nwaji, Jude. "CORN FERMENTATION AND ITS IMPORTANCE IN BIOFUEL PRODUCTION". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 30 Apr. 2018. Web. 06 Jun. 2020. < https://afribary.com/works/corn-fermentation-and-its-importance-in-biofuel-production >.
Nwaji, Jude. "CORN FERMENTATION AND ITS IMPORTANCE IN BIOFUEL PRODUCTION" Afribary.com (2018). Accessed June 06, 2020. https://afribary.com/works/corn-fermentation-and-its-importance-in-biofuel-production