PRELIMINARY STUDY OF THE ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECT OF WATERMELON BARK (ENDOCARP OR RIND ON S. THPHI, E. COLI AND S. AUREUS

Don Pagli 53 PAGES (5230 WORDS) Project
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ABSTRACT
In a research conducted to ascertain the antimicrobial activity of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) bark on organisms such as Escherichia coli, Slamonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureus using the ethanol and auqous extracts of the watermelon bark applying agar-well and pour-plate sensitivity technique.   It was observed that the ethanoic extract (dry) of watermelon bark on agar well showed a high inhibitory activity of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and shows a moderate inhibition on Salmonella.  While on pour-plate method the aqueous extract (dry) showed a high inhibitory act on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and none on Salmonella.
Keywords:  Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) bark, extract, antimicrobial activities, E.coli, S.typhi, S. aureus.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page
Approval Page
Dedication
Acknowledgement 
Table of Content
List of Tables
Abstract 

CHAPTER ONE
Introduction 
Objective 

CHAPTER TWO
Literature Review
Plant Taxonomy
The plant description
Health benefits of watermelon
Use of watermelon
Varieties 
Chemical constituent
Staphylococcus 
Staphylococcus aureus
Eschericha 
Escherichia coli
Salomella 

CHAPTER THREE
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Materials 
Method 
Sterilization of Water
Test Organism 
Inoculation of the Test Organism 
Preparation of Media
Nutrient Broth
Preparation of Extract 
Antimicrobial susceptibility test

CHAPTER FOUR
RESULT OF ANTI MICROBIAL ACTIVITIES
Result of the Activities of the Extract against
Staphylococcus aureus using pour plate and agar-well method
Result of the activities of the extracts against
Escherichia coli using pour plate and agar-well method
Result of the activities of the extracts against 
Salmonella typhi using pour plate and agar-well method
DISCUSSION

CHAPTER FIVE
CONCLUSION
RECOMMENDATION
REFRENCES


LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES
TABLES 
1. Result of Antimicrobial activity of the extracts against 
Salmonella typhi
2. Result of Antimicrobial activity of the extracts against Escherichia coli.
3. Result of Antimicrobial activity of the extracts against Staphylococcus aureus

FIGURES
1. Structure of Beta Carotene
2. Strcuture of Arginine 
3. Structure of Citrulline
4. Structure of Lycopene
5. Agar well method on S. typhi
6. Pour plate method on S. typhi
   

INTRODUCTION
 Citrullus lanatus is among the genera in the family Cucurbitanceae.  Its plant is slender, sprawling, slightly hairy monoecius annual plant.  The stems or runners may extend 0.3 to 10m.  in its natural environment, it grows in grassland or bushland, often along watercourses at altitude of 50 to 1400m.  it grows in well-drained soil and can withstand drought better than other melons.  It is widely distributed in Africa and Asia but originate from Southern Africa.
 Citrullus lanatus fruit is popularly consumed in different part of the world.  The juice quenches the thirst of water.  It concentrates powerful antioxidants such as lycopene and carotenoid which travels through the body neutralizing free radicals that can lead to stroke or heart attacks, the juice can also be probioticated using different strains of lactobacilli against Salmonella typhimurium (Fazeli et al., 2007).  The rind can be used in jam, jelly, pickle and wine production.  The seed can be used in oil production (Taiwo et al., 2008).  The leaf extract of Citrullus lanatus with different solvent viz, benzene, petroleum either and methanol were tested and have shown larvicidal, ovicidal, repellent and insect growth regulatory activities against Anophele stephensi (Diptera culicidea) and malaria vectors (Mullai et al., 2008.  The fresh fruit contains Cucurbitacins, common secondary plant compound of the cucurbitacea, are feeding stimulants for several species of beetles in the corn rootworm complex (DeMilo et al., 2000).  Cucurbitacin can also be added to bait containing an insecticide thereby reducing the levels of other insecticides treatment needed to control pests.
 Staphylococcus aureus are spherical cocci about 0.8 – 1.0µm in diameter.  They are characteristically in grape-like clusters.  They are non motile, non sporing and with the exception of rare strains are non capsulated.  They are gram-positive aerobes and facultative anaerobes.  Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen in that it causes infection most commonly in sights of lowered host resistance (Arora, 2003).     
 Escherichia coli is a gram negative bacterium, it is non capsulated, aerobe and facultative anaerobe commonly found in the lower intestine of warm blooded organisms.  It measures 1 - 3µm x 0.4 – 0.7µm in size.  The harmless strain are part of the normal flora of the gut and can benefit their host by producing Vit. K2 or preventing the establishment of pathogenic bacteria within the intestine (Brooks et al., 2007).
 Salmonella – it consist of facultative anaerobic gram-negative, non-sporing, non acid fast, non capsulated bacilli that parasites the intestines of a large number of vertebrate specie.  Most strains are non motile by means of peritrichous flagella.  It causes diease such as enteric-fever, speticaemia and food poisoning (Dampster 1992).
 This present study examines the antimicrobial activities of the extracts of the bark of Citrullus lanatus against Escherichia Coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi.

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APA

Don, P (2018). PRELIMINARY STUDY OF THE ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECT OF WATERMELON BARK (ENDOCARP OR RIND ON S. THPHI, E. COLI AND S. AUREUS. Afribary.com: Retrieved April 23, 2021, from https://afribary.com/works/preliminary-study-of-the-antimicrobial-effect-of-watermelon-bark-endocarp-or-rind-on-s-thphi-e-coli-and-s-aureus-3535

MLA 8th

Pagli, Don. "PRELIMINARY STUDY OF THE ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECT OF WATERMELON BARK (ENDOCARP OR RIND ON S. THPHI, E. COLI AND S. AUREUS" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 29 Jan. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/preliminary-study-of-the-antimicrobial-effect-of-watermelon-bark-endocarp-or-rind-on-s-thphi-e-coli-and-s-aureus-3535 . Accessed 23 Apr. 2021.

MLA7

Pagli, Don. "PRELIMINARY STUDY OF THE ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECT OF WATERMELON BARK (ENDOCARP OR RIND ON S. THPHI, E. COLI AND S. AUREUS". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 29 Jan. 2018. Web. 23 Apr. 2021. < https://afribary.com/works/preliminary-study-of-the-antimicrobial-effect-of-watermelon-bark-endocarp-or-rind-on-s-thphi-e-coli-and-s-aureus-3535 >.

Chicago

Pagli, Don. "PRELIMINARY STUDY OF THE ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECT OF WATERMELON BARK (ENDOCARP OR RIND ON S. THPHI, E. COLI AND S. AUREUS" Afribary.com (2018). Accessed April 23, 2021. https://afribary.com/works/preliminary-study-of-the-antimicrobial-effect-of-watermelon-bark-endocarp-or-rind-on-s-thphi-e-coli-and-s-aureus-3535