Correlates Of Criminal Recidivism In Maximum Prison Facilities In Kenya

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Recidivism, the tendency to relapse into crime by offenders upon release from prison, seems to be getting out of hand as inmates keep committing crime after going through prison rehabilitation programming. The public in turn pays heavily due to increased victimization arising from repeat offending not mentioning the negative impact on the already overcrowded correctional facilities in Kenya. It brings into question the efficacy of correctional programmes and/or reintegration of offenders into community on discharge.By interrogating correctional, individual and community correlates of criminal relapse, this study fills a knowledge gap by investigating multiple predictors of recidivism. It also provides insight into the behaviour of offenders who are at a relatively developed stage of their criminal career. To investigate the correlates of criminal recidivism in maximum prison facilities in Kenya, the following null hypotheses were tested; there is no significant relationship between Correctional Programming and offender‘s risk factors. There is no significant relationship between Correctional programming and offenders criminogenic factors and there exist no relationship between offender‘s individual factors and criminal relapse. The study was guided by control, labeling, social learning, routine activity and bronfenbrenner‘s ecological theories. It adopted a cross- sectional survey design, which employed both quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis approaches. The main respondents consisted of female and male recidivists at Kamiti and Langata maximum prisons. A total of 262 recidivists were sampled. Key informants were drawn from agencies, communities, administrators, offender‘s relatives and crime victims. The information was obtained using questionnaires and FGDs. Informed consent of respondents was sought. Data was analyzed through frequencies, percentages, crosstabulations and construction of pathways. Utilizing SAS in testing of hypotheses the following tests were carried out: (ANOVA), t-test, logit model and chi-square. Data was then interpreted and presented in descriptive and diagrammatic forms. Transition programming was found to be the most statistically significant predictor of criminal relapse. The study also established that correctional programming was not effective in addressing criminogenic needs of offenders, inmates not classified and lack of sufficient incentives that reward program participation and work programmes. Underfunding also compromised service delivery. Impulsive behaviour also influenced the respondent‘s criminal behaviour and higher number of alcohol abusers had higher risk of re offending. Low job prospects for ex-offenders were impediments to safe reintegration with employers highly averse in hiring them. The study concludes that criminal recidivism is multi-faceted and a product of many factors emanating from the handling of offender within the criminal justice chain, criminogenic needs of individual offenders and array of community factors. The study recommends that policies be developed to address transition and prison programming gaps, labor integration of ex-offenders, sentencing framework review and construction of environments that support inmates on release should equally be considered.

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Frontiers, E. & J, G (2021). Correlates Of Criminal Recidivism In Maximum Prison Facilities In Kenya. Afribary. Retrieved from

MLA 8th

Frontiers, Edu, and GRACE J "Correlates Of Criminal Recidivism In Maximum Prison Facilities In Kenya" Afribary. Afribary, 28 May. 2021, Accessed 05 Oct. 2022.


Frontiers, Edu, and GRACE J . "Correlates Of Criminal Recidivism In Maximum Prison Facilities In Kenya". Afribary, Afribary, 28 May. 2021. Web. 05 Oct. 2022. < >.


Frontiers, Edu and J, GRACE . "Correlates Of Criminal Recidivism In Maximum Prison Facilities In Kenya" Afribary (2021). Accessed October 05, 2022.