ISOLATION CHARACTERIZATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIA ASSOCIATED WITH HAWKED BARBECUE CHICKEN SOLD IN CALABAR METROPOLIS

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ABSTRACT

There is a reasonable increase in the consumption of barbecue chicken meat, which is due to the it nutritional value. An investigation was conducted to isolate, characterize and identify bacteria associated with hawked barbecue chicken obtained from Calabar metropolis using basically two different agar media which are Nutrient agar and Macconkey agar. The samples were analyzed using standard microbiological methods. A total of 67 isolates were obtained from 20 samples which were gotten from different vendors from four(4) different locations(Ekpo Abasi, Atamunu, Bogobiri, and Mbukpa). Total bacteria cell count ranges from 1.0×108 to 9.0×108. Bacteria isolated were 13, which includes Salmonella spp, Yersinia spp, Staphylococcus spp, Shiegella spp, Campylobacter spp, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonsa spp, Serratia spp, Citrobacter spp, E.coli, Enterobacter spp, Klebsiella spp and Proteus spp with their corresponding percentage occurrence of 9.0%, 1.5%, 1.5%, 9.0%, 2.9%, 2.9%, 7.6%, 9.0%, 4.5%, 2.9%, 2.9%, 11.9%, and 34.3% respectively. Proteus spp had the highest frequency occurrence listed, with Bogobiri having the highest frequency and percentage occurrence of 18(26.7%), followed by Ekpo Abasi and Mbukpa with 17(25.4%), then Atamunu with the least, 15(22.3%). The result revealed that frequency and percentage occurrence of Gram positive bacteria is4(5.97) and 63(94.02%) were Gram negative. Determination of isolates susceptibility testing of the isolates were carried out using ten(10) antimicrobial agents for Gram positive(Perfloxacin, Gentamycin, Ampliclox, Zinnacef, Amoxicillin, Rocephan, Ciprofloxacin, Stretomycin, Septrin and Erythromycin) and Gram negative (Septrin, Chloramphenicol, Sparfloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Amoxicillin, Augmentin, Gentamycin, Perfloxacin, Tarvid, Streptomycin). Results reveals Ciprofloxacin to be more effective to all the isolates than the other antimicrobial agents compared, and all the isolates were resistant to Streptomycin. There was no significant difference observed at P>0.05 in the distribution of isolated organisms in Bogobiri compared to the others. The bacteria associated with hawked barbecue chicken are of public health importance, ad so food safety measures should be put in place to protect the general public from diseases from this source. It is strictly advised that barbecue chicken should be properly handled and processed before consumption in other to improve health status of man and avoid the transmission of food borne illness, intoxication and diseases.


TABLE OF CONTENT

Cover page

Certification

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of content

List of tables

CHAPTER ONE

1.1  Introduction

1.2  Aim of the study

1.3  Objectives of the study

CHAPTER TWO

2.1 Overview and concept of meat

2.2 History of meat

2.3 Types of meat

2.3.1 Red meat

2.3.2 Sea food

2.3.3 Poultry

2.4 Barbecue chicken

2.4.1 Preparation of barbecue chicken

2.5 Nutritive value and benefit of barbecue chicken

2.6 Microorganisms associated with the contamination of barbecue chicken

2.6.1 Escherichia coli

2.6.2 Staphylococcus aureus

2.6.3 Listeria monocytogenes

2.6.4 Campylobacter spp

2.6.5 Salmonella spp

2.7 Foodborne illness associated with the consumption of contaminated barbecue chicken.

2.7.1 Campylobacteriosis

2.7.2 Salmonellosis

2.7.3 Listeriosis

2.8 Factors enhancing the contamination of barbecue chicken

2.9 Control measures to improve food vending.

CHAPTER THREE

3.1 Study area

3.2 Sample collection

3.3 Materials

3.4 Preparation of media

3.4 Preparation of sample

3.6 Purification and characterization of bacteria isolates

3.6.1 Gram staining

3.6.2 Coagulase test

3.6.3 Oxidase test

3.6.4 Catalase test

3.6.5 Citrate test

3.6.6 Triple Sugar Iron test

3.6.7 Indole test

3.6.8 Methyl red test

3.6.9 Vogues Proskauer test

3.6.10 Kirby-Bauer Disk Diffusion Test.

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1 Bacterial cell count

4.2 Physiochemical characteristics of the isolates

4.3 Total frequency occurrence of isolates from samples

4.4 Total Distribution of isolates base on location of sample collection

4.5 Total percentage occurrence of isolates base on location

4.6 Antimicrobial profile of isolates from samples

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1 Discussion

5.2 Conclusion

5.3 Recommendation

        References


                                     LIST OF TABLES


Tables                              Title                                                                                              Page


4.1:                 Bacterial cell count

4.2:                 Physiochemical characteristics of the isolates

4.3:                 Total frequency occurrence of isolates from samples

4.4:                 Total Distribution of isolates base on location of sample collection

4.5:                 Total percentage occurrence of isolates base on location

4.6:                 Antimicrobial profile of isolates from samples


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


                                            LIST OF FIGURES


Figures                              Title                                                                                                Page


      4.1                  Percentage occurrence of all bacterial isolates from samples


      4.2                  Percentage occurrence of Gram positive bacteria


      4.3                  Percentage occurrence of Gram negative bacteria


      4.4                   Percentage occurrence of bacterial isolates in all locations


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APA

Obobo, D. (2022). ISOLATION CHARACTERIZATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIA ASSOCIATED WITH HAWKED BARBECUE CHICKEN SOLD IN CALABAR METROPOLIS. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/david-upload-4

MLA 8th

Obobo, David "ISOLATION CHARACTERIZATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIA ASSOCIATED WITH HAWKED BARBECUE CHICKEN SOLD IN CALABAR METROPOLIS" Afribary. Afribary, 18 May. 2022, https://afribary.com/works/david-upload-4. Accessed 29 Jun. 2022.

MLA7

Obobo, David . "ISOLATION CHARACTERIZATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIA ASSOCIATED WITH HAWKED BARBECUE CHICKEN SOLD IN CALABAR METROPOLIS". Afribary, Afribary, 18 May. 2022. Web. 29 Jun. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/david-upload-4 >.

Chicago

Obobo, David . "ISOLATION CHARACTERIZATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIA ASSOCIATED WITH HAWKED BARBECUE CHICKEN SOLD IN CALABAR METROPOLIS" Afribary (2022). Accessed June 29, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/david-upload-4