ANTIBACTERIAL POTENCY OF SELECTED MEDICATED SOAPS ON SKINISOLATES GOTTEN FROM HOSTEL OCCUPANTS OF CRUTECH, CALABAR CAMPUS, CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA

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ABSTRACT


Skin flora refers to the microorganisms which reside on the skin many of which are bacteria. Resident bacteria can cause skin disease and enter the blood system, creating life-threatening disease, particularly in immune-suppressed people. Diseases of the skin include impetigo, boils, erysipelas, scabies, folliculitis, cellulitis etc. This present study aims at determining the antibacterial activity of various antiseptic soaps against bacterial isolates present on the skin of hostel occupants of CRUTECH Calabar campus. Eight (8) different bacteria stock cultures were gotten from the microbiology reference laboratory of Cross River University of Technology and were subcultured and identified following standard bacteriological methods. Five (5) medicated soap samples used for the study were purchased from cosmetics and pharmacy stores within Calabar metropolis. Different concentrations of soap samples (100%, 50%, 25%, 12.5% and 6.25%) were prepared and sensitivity discs were also prepared from the different soap concentration. Results from the disc diffusion assay showed that Premier cool soap had a higher effect and zone of inhibition, followed by dettol soap, TCP, and safeguard while tetmosol had the least effect on the different test organisms. Results from MIC revealed that Premier cool and dettol soaps had an MIC of 6.25% on S. aureus and Enterococcus spp while Tetmosol had an MIC of 100% on S. epidermidis. Results from MBC also revealed that Premier cool at a concentration of 6.25% inhibited the growth of S. aureus and Bacillus spp while Dettol and Safeguard could not inhibit bacteria growth.  The inhibition of the growth pattern of the isolates indicates the varying abilities of the organism to resist the antimicrobial effects of the soaps. However, prolonged used of these soaps could lead to development of microbial resistance in future. Therefore, it is recommended that irrational and longtime usage of these products should be discouraged because it could lead to development of microbial resistance and allergic reactions on skin.


TABLE OF CONTENTS


TITLE PAGE             -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           i

CERTIFICATION     -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           ii

DEDICATION           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT     -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           iv

ABSTRACT               -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           v

TABLE OF CONTENTS       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           vi

LIST OF TABLES     -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           ix

LIST OF FIGURES   -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           x 


CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION     -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           1

1.1       Aim of study   -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           1

1.2       Objective of the study                        -           -           -           -           -           -           -           2 


CHAPTER TWO

2.0       LITERATURE REVIEW      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           3

2.1       Common skin infections/diseases       -           -           -           -           -           -           3

2.1.1    Impetigo          -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           3

2.1.2    Cellulitis          -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           4

2.1.3    Erysipelas        -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           4

2.1.4    Boils    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           5

2.1.5    Scabies            -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           6

2.1.6    Folliculitis       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           6

2.2       Factors that affecting microbial growth on skin         -           -           -           -           7

2.2.1    Invaginations and appendages            -           -           -           -           -           -           7

2.2.2    Topography     -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           7

2.2.3    Host factors    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           7

2.2.4    Environmental factors             -           -           -           -           -           -           -           8

2.3       Pathogens commonly associated with skin infections            -           -           -           8

2.3.1    Staphylococcus aureus            -           -           -           -           -           -           -           8

2.3.2    Streptococcus spp        -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           8

2.3.3    Staphylococcus epidermidis    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           8

2.3.4    Clostridium difficle      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           9

2.3.5    Escherichia coli           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           9

2.3.6    Bacillus           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           10

2.3.7    Enterococcus   -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           10

2.3.8    Klebsiellaspp               -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           10

2.4       Antimicrobial agents commonly used against skin pathogen             -           -           11

2.4.1    Phenols            -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           11

2.4.2    Alcohols          -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           11

2.4.3    Ammonia        -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           11

2.4.4    Soap    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           11

2.4.5    Detergent        -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           12

2.5       Types of soap              -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           12

2.5.1    Local soap       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           12

2.5.2    Medicated soap           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           12

2.6       Types of medicated soap        -           -           -           -           -           -           -           12

2.6.1    Dettol soap      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           12

2.6.2    Tetmosol soap             -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           13

2.6.3    Safeguard soap           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           13

2.6.4    TCP medicated soap               -           -           -           -           -           -           -           13

2.6.5    Premier cool    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           13

2.7       Uses of medicated soap          -           -           -           -           -           -           -           13

2.8       Active compounds that are commonly found in soaps           -           -           -           14

2.8.1    Triclosan          -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           14

2.8.2    Benzalkonium chloride           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           14

2.8.3    Chloroxylenol             -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           15

2.8.4    Glycerin          -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           15

2.9       Prevention and control against common skin pathogens        -           -           -           16


CHAPTER THREE

3.0       MATERIALS AND METHODS      -           -           -           -           -           -           16

3.1       Study area       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           16

3.2       Confirmatory test of bacteria isolates             -           -           -           -           -           16

3.2.1    Gram stain       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           16

3.2.2    Catalase test                -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           16

3.2.3    Oxidase test    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           17

3.2.4    Coagulase test             -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           17

3.2.5    Citrate test      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           17

3.2.6    Triple sugar iron test               -           -           -           -           -           -           -           17

3.2.7    Indole test       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           18

3.2.8    Methyl Red Test         -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           18

3.3       Sample collection and processing       -           -           -           -           -           -           18

3.3.1    Preparation of sensitivity disk using soap samples     -           -           -           -           18

3.3.2    Media and reagent preparation           -           -           -           -           -           -           19

3.3.3    Mueller hinton agar preparation          -           -           -           -           -           -           19

3.3.4    Preparation for nutrient broth -           -           -           -           -           -           -           19

3.3.5    To standardize an inoculum    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           19

3.3.6    Normal saline preparation       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           19

3.3.7    How to prepare MacFarland standard                        -           -           -           -           -           19

3.4       Sensitivity testing       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           20

3.4.1    Disk diffusion assay               -           -           -           -           -           -           -           20

3.4.2    Determination of MIC                        -           -           -           -           -           -           -           20

3.4.3    Determination of MBC           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           20


CHAPTER FOUR

4.0       RESULTS       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           22

4.1       Diameter of zone of inhibition (mm) of soaps on different bacterial isolates 22

4.2       Result showing minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)     -           -           -           22

4.3       Result showing minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) -           -           23

4.4       Comparison of soaps samples on different bacterial isolates  -           -           -           23


CHAPTER FIVE

5.0       Discussion       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           33

5.1       Conclusion      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           34

5.2       Recommendation        -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           34

References      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           35


 

LIST OF TABLES


Table                          Title                                                                                                  page

Table 1:           Confirmation test for bacteria isolate             -           -           -           -           24

Table 2i           Diameter of zone of inhibition (mm) of Premier cool on Staphylococcus aureusand Bacillus spp          -           -           -           -           25

Table 2ii          Diameters of zones of inhibition (mm) for Dettol on Klebsiellaspp and Enterococcus spp             -           -           -           -           -           -           26 

Table 2iii         Diameters of zones of inhibition (mm) of Tetmosol on Streptococcus and Staphylococcus epidermidis         -           -           -           -           -           27

Table 2iv         Diameters of zones of inhibition (mm) of TCP on Clostridium difficle          28

Table 2v          Diameters of zones of inhibition (mm) of Safeguard on Escherichia coli      29

Table 3 Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC)     -           -           -           -           30

Table 4 Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC)            -           -           -           3

 

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure             Title                                                                                                              Page

1.                  Bar chart showing the different zones of inhibition of the soap samples on test organisms        -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           32


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APA

Obobo, D. (2022). ANTIBACTERIAL POTENCY OF SELECTED MEDICATED SOAPS ON SKINISOLATES GOTTEN FROM HOSTEL OCCUPANTS OF CRUTECH, CALABAR CAMPUS, CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/david-upload-8

MLA 8th

Obobo, David "ANTIBACTERIAL POTENCY OF SELECTED MEDICATED SOAPS ON SKINISOLATES GOTTEN FROM HOSTEL OCCUPANTS OF CRUTECH, CALABAR CAMPUS, CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA" Afribary. Afribary, 18 May. 2022, https://afribary.com/works/david-upload-8. Accessed 29 Jun. 2022.

MLA7

Obobo, David . "ANTIBACTERIAL POTENCY OF SELECTED MEDICATED SOAPS ON SKINISOLATES GOTTEN FROM HOSTEL OCCUPANTS OF CRUTECH, CALABAR CAMPUS, CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA". Afribary, Afribary, 18 May. 2022. Web. 29 Jun. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/david-upload-8 >.

Chicago

Obobo, David . "ANTIBACTERIAL POTENCY OF SELECTED MEDICATED SOAPS ON SKINISOLATES GOTTEN FROM HOSTEL OCCUPANTS OF CRUTECH, CALABAR CAMPUS, CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA" Afribary (2022). Accessed June 29, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/david-upload-8