DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF INDUSTRIAL POWER CONTROL BY INTEGRAL CYCLE SWITCHING WITHOUT GENERATING HARMONIC (Case study: Kakira Sugar Works)

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Declaration....................................................................................................................................... i

Approval .......................................................................................................................................... i

Dedication....................................................................................................................................... ii

Acknowledgement .........................................................................................................................iii

Abstract.......................................................................................................................................... iv

Abbreviations................................................................................................................................. vi

CHAPTER ONE ........................................................................................................................... 1

1.0 Introduction............................................................................................................................... 1

1.3. Objectives of the study............................................................................................................. 2

1.3.1 Main Objective................................................................................................................... 2

1.3.2 Specific objectives.............................................................................................................. 2

1.4. Research question .................................................................................................................... 3

1.5. Significance of the project ....................................................................................................... 3

1.6. Scope of the project ................................................................................................................. 3

1.6.1. Context scope .................................................................................................................... 3

1.6.2. Geographical scope ........................................................................................................... 3

1.6.3. Time scope ........................................................................................................................ 3

CHAPTER TWO .......................................................................................................................... 4

Literature review .......................................................................................................................... 4

2.0 Introduction............................................................................................................................... 4

2.1. Existing system........................................................................................................................ 4

2.2. Improved system...................................................................................................................... 6

CHAPTER THREE...................................................................................................................... 7

Methodology .................................................................................................................................. 7

3.0 Introduction............................................................................................................................... 7

3.1. Research design ....................................................................................................................... 7

3.1.1. Literature Review.............................................................................................................. 7

3.1.2. Observation ....................................................................................................................... 7

3.1.3. Interviews.......................................................................................................................... 7

3.1.4. Data Interpretation and Analysis....................................................................................... 7

3.2. Integral cycle switching ........................................................................................................... 8

3.3. Devices are used ...................................................................................................................... 8

3.3.1. Arduino.............................................................................................................................. 8

3.3.2. Solid state relay:................................................................................................................ 9

3.4. Block diagram of system ......................................................................................................... 9

3.4.1. Transformer....................................................................................................................... 9

3.4.2. Bridge Rectifier............................................................................................................... 10

3.4.3. Filter Capacitor................................................................................................................ 10

3.4.4. Voltage Regulators LM7805/LM7805A and LM7809/LM7809A ................................. 10

3.4.5. Resistor............................................................................................................................ 11

3.4.7. Microcontroller (ATmega328p)...................................................................................... 11

3.4.8. LCD Display ................................................................................................................... 13

3.4.9. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs)........................................................................................ 14

3.4.10. Zero Crossing Detector: ................................................................................................ 14

3.4.11. Opto-Isolator: ................................................................................................................ 15

3.4.12. TRIAC:.......................................................................................................................... 16

3.5. Circuit design of system......................................................................................................... 17

3.6 Working principle ................................................................................................................... 17

3.7 Logic design............................................................................................................................ 18

3.8 Flow chart for a proposed system ........................................................................................... 19

CHAPTER FOUR....................................................................................................................... 20

Testing, Results and Discussion................................................................................................. 20

4.1 Hardware testing ..................................................................................................................... 20

4.1.1 Continuity Test................................................................................................................. 20

4.1.2 Power on Test................................................................................................................... 20

4.2 Results and Discussion ........................................................................................................... 21

4.2.1 Discussion ........................................................................................................................ 22

CHAPTER FIVE ........................................................................................................................ 23

Conclusions and Recommendations.......................................................................................... 23

5.0 Conclusions............................................................................................................................. 23

5.1 Recommendations................................................................................................................... 23

References..................................................................................................................................... 24

Appendix A: Bill of quantity ........................................................................................................ 26

Appendix B: System code............................................................................................................. 27

Appendix C: Time frame .............................................................................................................. 31

Appendix D................................................................................................................................... 32


ABSTRACT 

The project is aimed at achieving integral cycle switching, a process of removing portions of cycles of an AC signal. The controlling of AC power is very important. Generally phase angle control is used for controlling AC power but due to that a sustainable amount of harmonics are generated in the system. This is found in linear loads for example heaters used in furnaces. This technique introduces lesser amount of harmonics. However the concept of achieving the integral cycle control by use of microcontroller can be very accurate as per the program written in assembly / C language so that the actual average voltage or current obtained at the load is comparatively lower than the whole signal if applied to the load. In place of a linear load to be used in the output, a series motor, fan or lamp can be used to verify the output. The disadvantage of using this scheme is unstable input current or voltage waveform as the cycles are switched on and off. In this technique we are using comparator for zero crossing detection which is fed as an interrupt to Atmega 328p microcontroller. Here the microcontroller delivers the output based on the interrupt given as input as the reference for generating triggering pulses. Using these pulses, we drive the opto-isolators for triggering the TRIAC to achieve integral cycle control as per the input switches interfaced to the microcontroller. A lamp or a fan is provided in this project in place of a motor for demonstration purpose. This project can be improved in feature by using a feedback mechanism so that everything becomes automatic to maintain the required output to the load.

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APA

Consults, E. (2022). DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF INDUSTRIAL POWER CONTROL BY INTEGRAL CYCLE SWITCHING WITHOUT GENERATING HARMONIC (Case study: Kakira Sugar Works). Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/design-and-implementation-of-industrial-power-control-by-integral-cycle-switching-without-generating-harmonic-case-study-kakira-sugar-works

MLA 8th

Consults, Education "DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF INDUSTRIAL POWER CONTROL BY INTEGRAL CYCLE SWITCHING WITHOUT GENERATING HARMONIC (Case study: Kakira Sugar Works)" Afribary. Afribary, 26 Jul. 2022, https://afribary.com/works/design-and-implementation-of-industrial-power-control-by-integral-cycle-switching-without-generating-harmonic-case-study-kakira-sugar-works. Accessed 10 Aug. 2022.

MLA7

Consults, Education . "DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF INDUSTRIAL POWER CONTROL BY INTEGRAL CYCLE SWITCHING WITHOUT GENERATING HARMONIC (Case study: Kakira Sugar Works)". Afribary, Afribary, 26 Jul. 2022. Web. 10 Aug. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/design-and-implementation-of-industrial-power-control-by-integral-cycle-switching-without-generating-harmonic-case-study-kakira-sugar-works >.

Chicago

Consults, Education . "DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF INDUSTRIAL POWER CONTROL BY INTEGRAL CYCLE SWITCHING WITHOUT GENERATING HARMONIC (Case study: Kakira Sugar Works)" Afribary (2022). Accessed August 10, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/design-and-implementation-of-industrial-power-control-by-integral-cycle-switching-without-generating-harmonic-case-study-kakira-sugar-works