Research Papers/Topics in Electrical Engineering

Performance of U.S. hybrid distributed energy systems: Solar photovoltaic, battery and combined heat and power

Until recently, the relatively high levelized cost of electricity from solar photovoltaic (PV) technology limited deployment; however, recent cost reductions, combined with various financial incentives and innovative financing techniques, have made PV fully competitive with conventional sources in many American regions. In addition, the costs of electrical storage have also declined enough to make PV + battery systems potentially economically viable for a mass-scale off-grid low-emission tran...

Double amorphous silicon-carbide p-layer structures producing highly stabilized pin-type protocrystalline silicon multilayer solar cells

We have applied double p-type amorphous silicon-carbide p-a-SiC:H layer structures to pin-type protocrystalline silicon pc-Si:H multilayer solar cells. The less-pronounced initialshort-wavelength quantum efficiency variation against the biased voltage and the wide overlap of dark current—voltage JD-V and short-circuit current—open-circuit voltage  Jsc-Voc characteristics prove that the double p-a-SiC:H layer structure successfully reduces recombination at the p/ i interface. Therefor...

Light-induced defect states in hydrogenated amorphous silicon centered around 1.0 and 1.2 eV from the conduction band edge

To take into account the presence of multiple light-induced defect states in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) the evolution of the entire spectra of photoconductive subgap absorption, a(hn ), has been analyzed. Using this approach two distinctly different light-induced defect states centeredaround 1.0 and 1.2 eV from the conduction band edge are clearly identified. Results are presented on their evolution and respective effects on carrier recombination that clearly point to the importa...

Photovoltaic System Performance Enhancement With Non-Tracking Planar Concentrators: Experimental Results and Bi-Directional Reflectance Function (BDRF) Based Modelling

Non-tracking planar concentrators are a low-cost method of increasing the performance of traditional solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. This paper presents new methodologies for properly modeling this type of system design and experimental results using a bi-directional reflectance function (BDRF) of non-ideal surfaces rather than traditional geometric optics. This methodology allows for the evaluation and optimization of specular and non-specular reflectors in planar concentration systems. In ...

Impact of Snow and Ground Interference on Photovoltaic Electric System Performance

Assessing snow-related energy losses is necessary for accurate predictions of photovoltaic (PV) performance. A PV test platform with seven portrait-oriented modules placed at four tilt angles (0°, 15°, 30°, and 45°) was installed in Calumet, MI, USA, to measure the energy loss in this snowy climate. As a best-case snow-shedding configuration, similar to a carport or a plain sloped roof, three of the test modules were rack-mounted high enough to prevent surface interference. The opposite e...

Levelized cost of electricity for solar photovoltaic, battery and cogen hybrid systems

The technological development and economic of scale for solar photovoltaic (PV), batteries and combined heat and power (CHP) have led to the technical potential for a mass-scale transition to off-grid home electricity production for a significant number of utility customers. However, economic projections on complex hybrid systems utilizing these three technologies is challenging and no comprehensive method is available for guiding decision makers. This paper provides a new method of quantifyi...

Emerging Economic Viability of Grid Defection in a Northern Climate Using Solar Hybrid Systems

High demand for photovoltaic (PV), battery, and small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) technologies are driving a virtuous cycle of technological improvements and cost reductions in off-grid electric systems that increasingly compete with the grid market. Using a case study in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, this paper quantifies the economic viability of off-grid PV+battery+CHP adoption and evaluates potential implications for grid-based utility models. The analysis shows that already so...

Aquavoltaics: Synergies for Dual Use of Water Area for Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Generation and Aquaculture

Bodies of water provide essentials for both human society as well as natural ecosystems. To expand the services these water provide, hybrid food-energy-water systems can be designed. This paper reviews the fields of floatovoltaic (FV) technology (water deployed solar photovoltaic systems) and aquaculture (farming of aquatic organisms) to investigate the potential of hybrid floatovoltaic-aquaculture synergistic applications for improving food-energy-water nexus sustainability. The primary moti...

Belt-Driven Open Source Circuit Mill Using Low-Cost 3-D Printer Components

Barriers to inventing electronic devices involve challenges of iterating electronic designs due to long lead times for professional circuit board milling or high costs of commercial milling machines. To overcome these barriers, this study provides open source (OS) designs for a low-cost circuit milling machine. First, design modifications for mechanical and electrical subsystems of the OS Distributed 3-D (D3D) Robotics prototyping system are provided. Next, Copper Carve, an OS custom graphica...

Coal with Carbon Capture and Sequestration is not as Land Use Efficient as Solar Photovoltaic Technology for Climate Neutral Electricity Production

Avoiding climate destabilization caused by greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, requires climate-neutral electricity sources. It has been proposed that the GHG emissions from coal-fired power plants can be offset by carbon capture and sequestration or bio-sequestration. However, solar photovoltaic (PV) technology has recently declined so far in costs it now offers both technical and economic potential to offset all of coal-fired electricity use. PV only emits GHGs during fabrication and not during...

Open source low-cost power monitoring system

This study presents an entirely open-source, low-cost power monitoring system capable of many types of measurements including both loads and supplies such as solar photovoltaic systems. In addition, the system can be fabricated using only open source software and hardware. The design revolves around the Digital Universal Energy Logger (DUEL) Node, which is responsible for reading and properly scaling the voltage and current of a particular load, and then serializing it via an on-board ATTiny8...

Design and construction of 36W automatic solar street light using Solar panel, charge controller, led and with battery

Design and construction of 36W automatic solar street light using Solar panel, charge controller, led and with batteryCHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION1.1 Background InformationElectricity is a general term comprising of a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. These include many phenomena, such as lightning, static electricity, and the flow of electrical current in a cable. In addition, electricity comprises less familiar concepts such as the electromagnetic fiel...

MODELING OF CORE LOSS IN INDUCTION MACHINE

AbstractInduction machine account for about 60percent of the electrical consumption in industrial countries; hence a huge energy savings could be achieved by even a small increment in the machine efficiency. Improving the designs of induction machines requires accurate quantification of the machine losses. A significant portion of the losses in electrical machine is caused by the core losses in the magnetic materials. The physical mechanism of core losses is still an open problem, and most of...