The kidneys play a major role in the control of the consistency of the internal environment. The blood passing through the kidneys is first filtrated (glomerular filtration) so that all the constituents, except blood cells and plasma proteins, go into the microtubular systems. In the kidneys the useful substances are quickly reabsorbed but unwanted substances escape filtration and are actively excreted in urine. (Krungkrai S, 2001).
However, renal function tests are important to identify renal dysfunction, to diagnose renal disease, to monitor disease progress, and to monitor response to treatment. In medicine (nephrology) renal function is an indication of the state of the kidney and its physiological role in the body. Most doctors use the concentration of creatinine, urea, to determine renal function. These measures are adequate to determine whether a patient is suffering from kidney disease. Smoking cigarette causes deterioration of renal function, which was first demonstrated in patients with kidney diseases, including diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephrosclerosis, polycystic kidney, and glomerulonephritis. (Heinrich J. et al., 2008).
Ughele, U (2019). Effect of cigarette smoking on kidney functions. Afribary.com: Retrieved August 04, 2020, from https://afribary.com/works/effect-of-cigarette-smoking-on-kidney-functions
Ughele, Ughele. "Effect of cigarette smoking on kidney functions" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 28 Aug. 2019, https://afribary.com/works/effect-of-cigarette-smoking-on-kidney-functions . Accessed 04 Aug. 2020.
Ughele, Ughele. "Effect of cigarette smoking on kidney functions". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 28 Aug. 2019. Web. 04 Aug. 2020. < https://afribary.com/works/effect-of-cigarette-smoking-on-kidney-functions >.
Ughele, Ughele. "Effect of cigarette smoking on kidney functions" Afribary.com (2019). Accessed August 04, 2020. https://afribary.com/works/effect-of-cigarette-smoking-on-kidney-functions