ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH IMPLICATIONS OF WASTE GENERATED IN ABATTOIRS - A CASE STUDY KADUNA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE

Nazif Sabo 66 PAGES (10146 WORDS) Project
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ABSTRACT

This project aimed at finding out the Environmental Health Implications of Waste Generated in Abattoirs- A Case Study of Kaduna South Local Government Area of Kaduna State. Questionnaire, personal observations, oral interview and labouratory analysis were used to collect the data. Water samples were taken from the selected area to assess the level of PH, BOD, Colour, Test, and Odour. Out of the total number of households which is 3418, 358 were randomly chosen to obtain their views. Based on their responses, it is observed that the water of the selected abattoirs is significantly polluted by abattoir effluents. The result is further supported by labouratory analysis which is then compared with FEPA acceptable limit. The labouratory results revealed that the various samples were contaminated with E.Coli and other enteric bacteria which pollute the water biologically beyond permissible limits. The presence of coliform staphylococcus aurens was confirmed in the water to an extent that it may be injurious to human health. The presence of various form of bacteria which cause Anthrax, Q-fever, Campylobacteriosis, Ornithosis, Botulism, Staph, Salmonellosis, Brucellosis are confirmed. These pose a serious public health problem. Therefore, the following recommendations were made: Enforcement of existing health and hygiene regulations guiding abattoir operation; provision of adequate wastes disposal facilities to cater for both solid and liquid waste; and also the provision of modern abattoir.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Declaration…………………………………………………………………..……i

Certification……………………………………………………………………….ii

Acknowledgement……………………………………………………….……….iii

Dedication…….……………………….…………………………………………iv

Abstract……………………………………………………………………………..v

Table of Content……………………………………………………...………….vi

List of Figures……………………………………………………….…………....vii

List of Tables..........................................................................................................viii

List of Plates …………………………………………………………………….....x

CHAPTER ONE

General Introduction………………………………………………………………1

Statement of Research Problems……………………………………………..…….3

Aim and Objectives of the Research………………………………………….……4

Significance of the Research………………………………………………….……5

Scope of the Research……………………………………………………………..5

CHAPTER TWO

Literature review……………………………………………………………….…6

Definition of waste………………………………………………………….…….6

Abattoirs……………………………………………………………………………6

Abattoirs Based Pollutants………………………………………………….…….7

Animal Blood………………………………………………………………………9

Paunch Manure……………………………………………………………………9

Animal Faeces or Manure…………………………….…………………………….9

Abattoir Effluents………………………………………………………………..10

Animal Horns and Bones………………………………………………………..10

Decomposing manure pile………………………………………………………10

Waste Management in Abattoirs……………………………………………..…10

Existing Disposal Options for the Abattoir Waste………………………………11

Burial…………………………………………………………………………….11

Compostion………………………………………………………………………12

Incineration………………………………………………………………………12

Rendering………………...…………………………………………………….…12

Land Spreading………………………………………………………………….13

Safe Disposal of Abattoir Waste…………………………………………………13

Environmental Health Implication of Waste Generated in Abattoirs…..….…13

Definition of terms and acronyms………………………………………………16

CHAPTER THREE

Study Area and Methods……..…………………………………………………...17

Historical Background of the Study Area……………………………………….17

Location………………………………………………………………………….17

Climate……………………………………………………………………………21

Geology and Relief………………………………………………………………21

Soil and Vegetation……………………………………………………………….21

Methods…………………………………………………………………………..22

Data Collection………………………………………………………………….22

Methods of Data Analysis………………………………………………………24

CHAPTER FOUR

Data Presentation and Analysis…………………………………………...………25

Personal Data of the Respondent …………………………………………...…….25

Environmental Health Implications of Waste Generated………………………....31

Possible Infections from Abattoir Wastes………………………………………...32

Waste Generated……………………………………………………………….….33

Assessment of Government Role Towards Waste Management………….…..…..34

Descriptive Analysis of Labouratory Result……………………………….……..35

Microbial Contents in Sample effluents per/100ml…………………..,.………….36

PH and BOD Contents in Sampled Effluent Per/100ml……………...…………...37

Comparison of the Analysed Samples With Federal Environmental Protection 

Agency (FEPA) Acceptable Limits……………………………………………….38

CHAPTER FIVE

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation…………………………………..41

Summary…………………………………………………………………………..41

Conclusion…………………………………………………………………….…..41

Recommendation………………………………………………………………….42

Reference………………………………………………………………………….44

Appendix...………………………………………………………………………..48

LIST OF FIGURES

Fig. 3.1 Map of Kaduna South Local Government Showing the Study 

Area………………………………………………………………………………18

Fig. 3.2 Aerial Photo of Kaduna South Local Government Area Showing the 

Locations of Selected Abattoirs………………………………………………….20

Fig.4.1. Location Distribution………….…………………………………………25

Fig.4.2 Sex Distribution …………………………………………………………..26

Fig.4.3 Age Distribution…………………………………………………………..27

Fig. 4.4 Marital Status Distribution ………………………………………………28

Fig.4.5 Occupation Distribution ...………………………………………………..29

Fig.4.6. Educational Status………………….…………………………………….30

Fig. 4.7 Percentage of Animals Slaughtered Per/day …………………..……..….34

LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.1 Number of household in each area…………………………………….23

Table 4.1 Showing Location Distribution…………………….…………………..25

Table 4.2 Sex Distribution ……………………………………………………….26

Table 4.3 Age Distribution .....................................................................................27

Table 4.4 Marital Status……………..…………………………………………….28

4.1.5. Occupation ……………………………...………………………………….29

Table 4.6 Level of Education……………………………………………………..30

Table 4.7 Environmental Health Perception on Waste Generated…...……...……31

Table 4.8 Perception on Possible infections from abattoir wastes…………..……33

Table 4.9 Categories of wastes generated …………………..……………………34

Table 4.10 Government Role Towards Waste Management……………………...36

Table 4.11 Colour, Odour and Test……………………………………………….37

Table 4.12 Microbial Contents in Sampled Effluents Per/100ml………………..37

Table 4.13 PH and BOD Contents in Sampled Effluent Per/100ml………………38

Table 4.14 Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) Acceptable Limits 

for PH and BOD…………………………….……………………………………39

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APA

Nazif, S (2020). ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH IMPLICATIONS OF WASTE GENERATED IN ABATTOIRS - A CASE STUDY KADUNA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE. Afribary.com: Retrieved October 22, 2020, from https://afribary.com/works/environmental-health-implication-of-wast

MLA 8th

Sabo, Nazif. "ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH IMPLICATIONS OF WASTE GENERATED IN ABATTOIRS - A CASE STUDY KADUNA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 18 Jul. 2020, https://afribary.com/works/environmental-health-implication-of-wast . Accessed 22 Oct. 2020.

MLA7

Sabo, Nazif. "ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH IMPLICATIONS OF WASTE GENERATED IN ABATTOIRS - A CASE STUDY KADUNA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 18 Jul. 2020. Web. 22 Oct. 2020. < https://afribary.com/works/environmental-health-implication-of-wast >.

Chicago

Sabo, Nazif. "ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH IMPLICATIONS OF WASTE GENERATED IN ABATTOIRS - A CASE STUDY KADUNA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE" Afribary.com (2020). Accessed October 22, 2020. https://afribary.com/works/environmental-health-implication-of-wast