EVALUATION OF THE IMT/ESBS POLY-AIR DISTANCE EDUCATION PROGRAMME

INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Evaluation has a Latin origin, meaning to strengthen or to empower. Today, evaluation means different things to different people. Rowntree (1990) viewed evaluation as a process of getting various peoples reactions on a programme with a view to improving it. Evaluation could also be defined as a process of comparing programme performance with desired standards to determine if there is any discrepancy between the two (Provus, 1971). The term evaluation is largely about the measurement, appraisal of worth or value of a thing or action and making of appropriate decision on the basis of such measurement or appraisal.
Evaluation can be summative or formative. It is formative when it is used to improve or develop programme activities as they are carried out, and is therefore continuous. It enables people and agencies make judgment about the work undertaken; to identify their knowledge, attitudes and skills, and to understand the changes that have occurred in these; and to increase the ability to access their learning and performance. Summative evaluation measures the outcome of an activity or set of activities (Oshuag, 1992). It is also used to satisfy the accountability requirements of programme sponsors. Evaluation becomes summative also when it is directed to enable people and agencies to demonstrate that they have fulfilled the objective of the programme or project, or to demonstrate they have achieved the standard required.
There are different models of evaluation namely; (i) Accreditation model (ii) Serivens Goal-Free or Frameless model (iii) Provus Discrepancy model (iv) Stakes Countenance model (v) Stakes Responsive model and (vi) Stouffflebeams CIPP model. The CIPP model ensures that context, input, process and product evaluations and a combination of these can be undertaken. The present research shall apply CIPP to ensure a comprehensive evaluation of the entire programme.
The term ‘distance education’ represents a variety of educational models that have in common the physical separation of the faculty member and some or all of the students. The United  State Distance Learning Association (USSDLA) (2000) defined distance learning as the delivery of education or training through electronically, video, audio, graphic, computer, multimedia technology and other forms of learning at a distance.   There are several key features that define distance learning. They include;
1.The separation of the teacher and learner during at least a majority of each instructional process.
2.The use of educational media to unite teacher and learner and carry course content.
3.The provision of two-way communication between teacher, tutor or educational agency.
4.Separation of teacher in space and or time.
5.Voluntary control of learning by students rather than distance   instructor.
In essence, distance education is a teaching technique by which teaching-learning can take place while teacher and the leaner are separated by distance. As with all types of education, the various distance education models are built around the central component of the instructional process: presentation of content; interaction with faculty peers, and resources; practical application; and assessment. Each distance education model uses technologies in various ways to address some or all of these components. Distance education as an instrument for mass and qualitative education is gradually gaining local and international acceptance. In this regard Moore (2002) reported that distance education has experienced dramatic growth both nationally and internationally since the early 1980s. 
The success of a distance education programme depends on its resource adequacy, objective achievement, management principles and media. In this regards, Mayagila (1990) asserted that what made Britain and Pakistan, Zimbabwe and Philippines to succeed in distance education were the adequacy and availability of resources, management principles and media through special political will of their respective governments.
In Nigeria, distance education is gradually gaining popularity but not without problems. Okwo (1996) and Nnadozie (1986) lamented that the practice of distance education in Nigeria is faced with inadequate application of educational technology, inadequate funding, low level technological input, and policy instability, lack of materials, equipments and professionals. Moreover, the expensive nature of the needed equipment, the cost of repairs and the expatriate services needed for the maintenance and practice of operational distance education is enormous. Distance education, as it is in Nigeria today, may not provide opportunities for everyone to read and write with the limitations imposed by present Nigeria economy. The present polity in Nigeria does not create enabling environment for growth and development of distance education. Nwingira (1990) and Ogili (1997) agreed that most African countries including Nigeria are facing one problem or the other in the running of distance education programme. They listed some of these problems which include: 
(i)Inadequate trained distance educators. And very few experts available lack constant retraining to keep abreast of the fast rate of technological changes.
(ii)Dependence on consultants outside Africa.
(iii)Lack of finance   and culture of preventive maintenance in Africa.
(iv)Lack of effective co-operation and networking among experts in distance education in Africa.
Parraton (1984) presented the military as another major problem affecting the growth and development of distance education in Nigeria. Thus, Achebe (1984) noted that poverty and mass illiteracy was preventing Nigeria from emerging giant of Africa. These problems as enumerated frustrate the development and growth of distance education anywhere in the world.
In 1976, the Institute of Management and Technology (IMT) Enugu in collaboration with the former Anambra Broadcasting Co-operation (ABC) established a distance education programme, in Nigeria. The programme was then called ABC University of the Air, IMT programme. Adigwe (1978) reported that the Higher National Diploma (HND) radio programme in Nigeria was established in 1976 by the Institute of Management and Technology (IMT) Enugu. Hence the programme started as a joint distance education venture between the then Anambra Broadcasting Co-operation (ABC) and the Institute of Management and Technology (IMT) Enugu. Four hours a day was set aside for education radiobroadcasts. Also set-books were produced for learners with the supplement of face-to-face contact on Saturdays. Telephones and posted services were also used. 
Since the creation of the present Enugu state from the old Anambra State of Nigeria, the former Anambra State Broadcasting Co-operation (ABC) changed its name to Enugu State Broadcasting Service (ESBS). Today, the former IMT/ABC Uni-Air Distance Education Programme is known as IMT/ESBS Poly-Air Distance Education Programme in keeping with the realities of creation of the new states and the fact that the distance education programme is run within a Polytechnic and not a University.
It is about twenty-five (25) years since the establishment of IMT/ESBS Poly-Air Distance Education Programme and there is an obvious need to evaluate the programme to ensure that the objectives of the programme are met as desired. Rumble (1986) posited that constant evaluation in distance education practice in Nigeria will help place it where it should naturally belong, to be able to judge its values and possibilities due to it. A constant and periodic evaluation is of critical importance in education, as a stagnant education system will fail to respond to the dynamics of development (Chung, 1990); hence, the need for this research work. – The Evaluation of IMT / ESBS Poly-Air Distance Education Programme.

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APA

Kings, S. (2018). EVALUATION OF THE IMT/ESBS POLY-AIR DISTANCE EDUCATION PROGRAMME. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/evaluation-of-the-imt-esbs-poly-air-distance-education-programme-5809

MLA 8th

Kings, Solomon "EVALUATION OF THE IMT/ESBS POLY-AIR DISTANCE EDUCATION PROGRAMME" Afribary. Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/evaluation-of-the-imt-esbs-poly-air-distance-education-programme-5809. Accessed 22 May. 2024.

MLA7

Kings, Solomon . "EVALUATION OF THE IMT/ESBS POLY-AIR DISTANCE EDUCATION PROGRAMME". Afribary, Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018. Web. 22 May. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/evaluation-of-the-imt-esbs-poly-air-distance-education-programme-5809 >.

Chicago

Kings, Solomon . "EVALUATION OF THE IMT/ESBS POLY-AIR DISTANCE EDUCATION PROGRAMME" Afribary (2018). Accessed May 22, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/evaluation-of-the-imt-esbs-poly-air-distance-education-programme-5809