EXTRACTION AND FORMULATION OF PERFUME FROM LEMONGRASS LEAVES

Alex Raji 69 PAGES (11013 WORDS) Project
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ABSTRACT

Perfume extraction refers to the extraction of aromatic compounds from raw materials, using methods such as distillation, solvent extraction, expression or enfleurage. The extracts are either essential oils, absolutes, concretes, or butters, depending on the amount of waxes in the extracted product. Heat, chemical solvents, or exposure to oxygen in the extraction process denature the aromatic compounds, either changing their odour, character or rendering them odourless. In this work three methods, solvent extraction, hydro distillation and enfleurage methods were used to extract essential oil from lemongrass. Solvent extraction method yielded 2.08%, enfluerage method yielded 1.96% and hydro distillation methods yielded 0.95% essential oil respectively. From the analysis solvent extraction gave the highest yield because of the less exposure air and heat and this conform the literature value. The extracted essential oil was formulated into perfume using a fixative and carrier solvent.

TABLE OF CONTENT
TITLE PAGE……………………………………………………………………………………..i
APPROVAL PAGE…………………………………………………………………………….ii
DEDICATION…………………………………………………………………………………..iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT……………………………………………………………………iv
ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………………………………v
TABLE OF CONTENT……………………………………………………………………….vi
LIST OF FIGURES……………………………………………………………………………..x
LIST OF TABLES………………………………………………………………………………xi

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background…………………………………………………………………………… 1
1.2 Lemongrass…………………………………………………………………………….3
1.3 Statement of problem……………………………………………………………...5
1.4 Objective of project………………………………………………………………….6
1.5 Justification/significance of project………………………………………….6
1.6 Scope of work……………………………………………………………………….…6
1.7 Uses of perfume……………………………………………………………………….7

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Historical development of perfume………………….……………………..8
2.2 Perfume concentration……………………………………….…………………10
2.3 Perfume notes……………………………………………………….………………11
2.4 Sources of perfume………………………………………………………………..12
2.4.1 Aromatic source…………………………………………………………………….12
2.4.2 Synthetic source…………………………………………………………….………15
2.5 Essential oil……………………………………………………………………………16
2.6 Chemical constituents of essential oil……………………………………..20
2.6.1 Hydrocarbons………………………………………………………………………..21
2.6.2 Terpenes………………………………………………………………………….…….21
2.6.3 Alcohols……………………………………………………………………………..…..24
2.6.4 Aldehydes………………………………………………………………………………24
2.6.5 Acids………………………………………………………………………………………25
2.6.6 Esters……………………………………………………………………………………..25
2.6.7 Ketones…………………………………………………………………………………..25
2.6.8 Lactones…………………………………………………………………………………26
2.7 Treatments and purification of essential oil……………………………...27
2.8 Storage of essential oil……………………………………………………………..28
2.9 perfume extraction methods……………………………………………………28
2.9.1 Extraction………………………………………………………………………………..29
2.9.2 Distillation………………………………………………………………………………30
2.9.3 Expression………………………………………………………………………………34
2.9.4 Enfluerage………………………………………………………………………………35
2.10 Formulation of perfumes………………………………………………….........35
2.11 Lemongrass…………………………………………………………………..………..36
2.12 Lemongrass oil……………………………………………………………….....……39
2.12.1Origin of lemongrass oil…………………………………………….…….………39
2.12.2 Properties of lemongrass oil…………………………………………………..39
2.12.3 Chemical composition of lemongrass oil…………………………………39
2.12.4 Extraction………………………………………………………………………………40
2.14.5 Uses of lemongrass oil…………………………………………………………….40

CHAPTER THREE
MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 Sample source and preparation………………………………………..……….42
3.2 Apparatus and solvents.……………………………………………………………42
3.3 Solvent extraction method…………………………….……………………….….43
3.4 Enfleurage Method …………………………………………………………………44
3.5 Hydrodistillation Method………………………………….……………………45
3.6 Formulation of perfumes ………………………………….……………………46

CHAPTER FOUR
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Solvent extraction method…………………………………………………….47
4.2 Enfleurage extraction method……………………………………………….48
4.3 Hydrodistillation method……………………………………………………..49
CHAPTER FIVE
CONCLUSION………………………………………………………………………….…….51
RECOMMENDATION……………………………………………………………………..52
REFERENCE……………………………………………………………………………….…53
APPENDIX……………………………………………………………………………….……52
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APA

Alex, R (2018). EXTRACTION AND FORMULATION OF PERFUME FROM LEMONGRASS LEAVES. Afribary.com: Retrieved March 05, 2021, from https://afribary.com/works/extraction-and-formulation-of-perfume-from-lemongrass-leaves-7936

MLA 8th

Raji, Alex. "EXTRACTION AND FORMULATION OF PERFUME FROM LEMONGRASS LEAVES" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 29 Jan. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/extraction-and-formulation-of-perfume-from-lemongrass-leaves-7936 . Accessed 05 Mar. 2021.

MLA7

Raji, Alex. "EXTRACTION AND FORMULATION OF PERFUME FROM LEMONGRASS LEAVES". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 29 Jan. 2018. Web. 05 Mar. 2021. < https://afribary.com/works/extraction-and-formulation-of-perfume-from-lemongrass-leaves-7936 >.

Chicago

Raji, Alex. "EXTRACTION AND FORMULATION OF PERFUME FROM LEMONGRASS LEAVES" Afribary.com (2018). Accessed March 05, 2021. https://afribary.com/works/extraction-and-formulation-of-perfume-from-lemongrass-leaves-7936