Research Papers/Topics in Chemical Engineering

Cashew Nut Shell Liquid, A Renewable and Reliable Petro-Chemical Feedstock

ABSTRACT The physical properties of CNSL extracted by pyrolysis was studied using standard procedures. The physical properties of the CNSL studied and results obtained compared with other extraction methods (hexane extracted and decarboxylated) from literature are moisture content 4.1%, (6.40%, 3.2%), specific gravity 0.943 (0.926, 0.926) viscosity 57cp (40cp, 358cp), pH 4.5 (4.5, 5.2) and the percent composition of the CNSL compared with those from literature are cardol 27% (30%, 31% ...

Modeling Bioremediation Of A Petroleum Contaminated Soil Enhanced With Npk Fertilizer And Animal/Plant Derived Organic Manure

ABSTRACT In this study, the potential effects of animal derived organic manure (cow dung, poultry droppings), saw dust and NPK fertilizer on the bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil was investigated. The rate of biodegradation was studied for the period of 10 weeks under laboratory conditions. The biodegradation data were fitted to eight models, four of which are based on microbial growth rate and the other four based on order of reaction. Results obtained show that...

Kinetic Modelling Of Enhanced Bioremediation Of Hydrocarbon Polluted Soil

ABSTRACT Remediation of hydrocarbon polluted soil applying all existing techniques can be slow, expensive and requires close monitoring. Bioremediation and phytoremediation augmented bioremediation have been used to treat petroleum contaminated soil and even the difficult poly aromatic hydrocarbon polluted soil which takes longer time. What has not been studied was the effect of heavy metals present in petroleum which slows down the substrate degradation by microorganisms. After the pri...

Development Of A Cathodic Protection System Using A Galvanic Anode Method

ABSTRACT The development of a Cathodic Protection System for a mild steel pipe using a magnesium anode was investigated. The pipe was externally coated with three layers of polykene tape wrapping and the soil resistivity was determined using the Wenner four pin method; a value of 2177Ωcm was obtained. The design parameters for the developed Cathodic Protection System were: total current of 0.0153mA; current density of 0.01mA/m 2 ; protection current of 0.0153mA; protection voltage o...

Development And Performance Evaluation Of A Tray Column Under Vertical And Tilt Conditions

ABSTRACT In this work, the operation and performance of a novel Separation Tray Column under Vertical and Tilt conditions is presented. The Tray Column used for the work is a Downcomerless liquid initiated and controlled Valve Tray with capacity to shut portions of the tray lacking liquid at any time. To evaluate the mass transfer performance of this column, an oxidation experiment was conducted at 300C and the percentage of Fe (II) oxidised to Fe (III) from contaminated water by air wa...

Determination Of Surface Charge Density Of Α-Alumina By Acid - Base Titration

ABSTRACT. The surface charge density (σo) of colloidal alpha-alumina suspended in various 1:1 electrolytes was measured using acid-base titration. An auto titrator capable of dispensing accurately 25 ± 0.1 µL of titrant was used. The pH and temperature in the titration cell were monitored using single-junction electrodes and platinum resistance thermometers, respectively. A constant supply of nitrogen gas in the cell was used to maintain inert conditions. The whole set-up was interface...

Optimizing The Conditions And Processes For The Production Of Protein Nutrient From Parkia Biglobosa Seeds

ABSTRACTAfrican Locust Bean (Parkia biglobosa) seeds known as ‘Iyere’ in Yoruba language were fermented aerobically and anaerobically at 40, 50, 60 and 70 °С for five days (120 hours) with the aid of two starter cultures - Bacillus Subtilis and Saccharomyces Cerevisiae to a vegetable protein based food condiment known as ‘Iru’. The Fermenter was fabricated with galvanized iron, thus getting rid of the unhygienic methods of producing it locally. Samples were taken every day (24 hours...

Development And Characterization Of Zeolitey From A Nigerian Local Raw Material.

ABSTRACTZeolites are important chemical materials used in chemical processes. The manufacture of the materials usually involves the use of expensive chemicals. This study involves the use of Elefun Nigerian Kaolin (ENK) as precursor material for the development of zeolite Y. The synthesis of zeolite Y was successful following a sequence: collection of raw kaolin clay from Elefun area of Ogun state, Nigeria; subjecting it to, calcination, partial dealumination and final hydrothermal ...

Production And Life Cycle Assessment Of Biodiesel From Three Waste Oils

ABSTRACTConverting the huge amount of waste cooking oils presently generated globally to biodiesel ascomplementary energy source to fossil fuel is one of the major routes to sustainable energymanagement. However, producing quality biodiesel at established optimum conditions, through aclean technology with favourable environmental implications is of greater importance. Thisresearch focused on achieving the latter through alkali catalysed trans-esterification process ofbiodiesel production...

Short-Term Lime Pretreatment And Enzymatic Conversion Of Sawdust Into Ethanol

ABSTRACTThe utilization of lignocellulosic biomass as feedstock for the production of fuel ethanol has attracted considerable interests in the last few decades. The emergence of new technologies has provided hope for fuel ethanol potential uses. Lignocellulose is a valuable alternative energy source. The enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass is constrained due to its complex structural features, so pretreatment is important to enhance its enzymatic digestibility. In this study, the ...

Short-Term Lime Pretreatment And Enzymatic Conversion Of Sawdust Into Ethanol

ABSTRACT The utilization of lignocellulosic biomass as feedstock for the production of fuel ethanol has attracted considerable interests in the last few decades. The emergence of new technologies has provided hope for fuel ethanol potential uses. Lignocellulose is a valuable alternative energy source. The enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass is constrained due to its complex structural features, so pretreatment is important to enhance its enzymatic digestibility. In this stud...

Production And Life Cycle Assessment Of Biodiesel From Three Waste Oils

ABSTRACT Converting the huge amount of waste cooking oils presently generated globally to biodiesel as complementary energy source to fossil fuel is one of the major routes to sustainable energy management. However, producing quality biodiesel at established optimum conditions, through a clean technology with favourable environmental implications is of greater importance. This research focused on achieving the latter through alkali catalysed trans-esterification process of biodiesel pro...

Investigating The Viability Of Hydrogen Production From Sodium Borohydride Using Organic Acids And Extracts From Spoilt Citrus Fruit

ABSTRACT With the fast depletion of fossil fuel sources for energy production and coupled with their negative impacts on the environment, the continued search for alternative sources that are renewable, sustainable and environmentally friendly has become imperative. This research examined the performance of sodium borohydride for the production of hydrogen gas using 5 ml each of organic acid (acetic acid) and extracts of spoilt citrus fruits (lime, lemon and orange) without the use of n...

The Destruction Of The Black Gold, Its Offspring And Human Development

INTRODUCTION. In its ordinary sense, the term destruction usually has the under current of sadness. Why then would destruction in this context be beneficial to the socio-economic well being of the human race? The reasons will crystallize out. I hope, as I discuss this topic. The black gold simply refers to crude oil or petroleum, its offspring are the products resulting from its destructive physical separation. One may then ask why the name “black gold”? Gold as we know is a very...

“Mono-Metallic Reforming Catalyst Life And Mortality: A Replica Of Human Life And A Panacea To Better Health”

REACTIONS AND TYPES Reaction in chemistry has to do with a chemical transformation taking place with atoms or molecules (compounds) or their combinations. Since there is usually a change in energy level, reaction is usually accompanied by heat absorption (Endothermic Reactions) or heat evolution (Exothermic Reactions). On a daily basis, apart from reactions that are initiated by man, there are scores of natural reactions taking place on routine basis. The existence of man and other liv...


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