FACTORS INFLUENCING HUMAN WILDLIFE CONFLICT IN COMMUNITIES SURROUNDING PROTECTED AREAS AT OL PEJETA CONSERVANCY, TIGITHI WARD, LAIKIPIA COUNTY, KENYA

Chelsea Langat 81 PAGES (16234 WORDS) Project
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ABSTRACT

Human-wildlife conflicts pose a great challenge to wildlife conservation and are increasing as human migration settlement from rural to urban areas increases, development expands, global climate changes and other human and environmental factors put people and wildlife in greater direct competition for a shrinking resource base. The purpose of this study was to find out the factors influencing human-wildlife conflict in communities surrounding protected areas; a case of OlPejeta Conservancy. Objectives of the study were to determine the influence of; resources competition, human migration settlement, human invasion to protected areas as well assessing how Kenya Wildlife Service conservation measures influence human-wildlife conflict in communities living around OPC. The study was influenced by the fact that human-wildlife conflict cases are still rampant in OPC despite measures taken up by Kenya Wildlife Service to reduce human-wildlife conflict. The study is significant to interested stakeholders in developing programs that will ensure sustainability of the wildlife and human, assist Kenya Wildlife Service in reviewing and amending appropriately existing policies governing natural resources and land issues and local community and future researchers interested in related topics. The study was based on Social Conflict and Stakeholder theories. The study used a descriptive survey research design where the target population comprised of 1200 households from Tigithi and Ngobit villages surrounding OPC and all the 10 Kenya Wildlife Service officers at OPC station. Stratified sampling was adopted to select 130 households. Questionnaires and interview guides were used to collect data. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as percentages and frequency while data was presented using tables. Respondents were assured of the confidentiality of the information provided. From the study, it was concluded that when there is drought, the pastoralists graze their livestock in the protected areas and some residents also block water for domestic and agricultural use, people migrate due to various reasons which have led to an increase in human population, that invasion to protected area for agricultural and economic activities are also on the rise. This study recommends that: the government should resettle squatters away from the protected area, enforcement of regulations and legislation on the safe distance on which people should build their houses away from protected areas and community education and awareness by Kenya Wildlife Service should be implemented in the areas where Human-Wildlife Conflict is experienced.


 

 

 

 

 

 

Table of Contents

DECLARATION.. i

DEDICATION.. ii

ACKNOWLEDGMENT. iii

ABSTRACT. iv

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS. v

CHAPTER ONE.. 1

1.1 Background of the study. 1

1.2 Statement of the Problem.. 3

1.3 Purpose of the Study. 4

1.4 Objectives of the study. 4

1.5 Research Questions. 4

1.6 Scope of the Study. 5

1.7 Significance of the study. 5

1.8 Limitations of the study. 5

1.9 Delimitation of the Study. 5

1.10 Definitions of significant terms used in the study. 5

1.11 Organization of the study. 6

CHAPTER 2. 1

2.1 Introduction. 1

2.2 Human-Wildlife Conflict 1

2.3 Influence of Resources Competition on Human-Wildlife Conflict 2

2.4 Influence of Human Migration Settlement on Human-Wildlife Conflict 3

2.5 Influence of Human Invasion to protected Areas on Human-Wildlife Conflict 5

2.6 Influence of KWS Conservation Measures on Human-Wildlife Conflict 6

2.7 Theoretical Framework. 8

2.7.1 The Social Conflict Theory. 8

2.7.2 Stakeholder Theory. 8

2.8 Conceptual framework. 9

2.9 Summary and Knowledge gap. 11

CHAPTER THREE.. 12

3.1 PHYSICAL SETUP. 12

3.1.1 LOCATION AND HISTORY.. 12

3.1.2 Climate and temperature. 13

3.1.3Geology. 13

3.1.4 Drainage. 14

3.2 ECOLOGICAL SET UP. 14

3.2.1 Common vegetation. 14

3.2.2 TYPES OF SPECIES. 15

3.3 SOCIO-ECONOMIC SETUP. 16

CHAPTER 4. 20

4.1 Introduction. 20

4.2 Research design. 20

4.3 Nature and Sources of data. 20

4.3.1 Nature of data. 20

4.3.2 Sources of data. 20

4.4 Data Collection Methods. 21

4.4.1 Interview schedules. 21

4.4.2 Questionnaires Administration. 21

4.4.3 Observation Sheet 21

4.5 Target population of the study. 21

4.6 Sampling technique and sample size. 22

4.7 Sampling technique. 22

4.8 Sample Size. 22

4.9 Research instrument 23

4.10 Data Collection Procedures. 23

4.11 Data analysis technique. 23

4.12 Ethical considerations. 25

CHAPTER 5. 26

5.1 Introduction. 26

5.2 Response rate. 26

5.3 Demographic Information. 26

5.4 Resource Competition and Human-Wildlife Conflict 29

5.5 Human Migration Settlement and Human-Wildlife Conflict 31

5.6 Human Invasion to Protected Areas and Human-Wildlife Conflict 33

5.7 KWS Conservation Measures and Human-Wildlife Conflict 35

CHAPTER SIX.. 39

6.1 Introduction. 39

6.2 Summary of Findings. 39

6.3 Discussion of Findings. 39

6.4 Conclusion. 41

6.5Recommendations. 41

REFERENCES. 42

APPENDICES. 45

APPENDIX I: INTRODUCTION LETTER.. 45

APPENDIX II: QUESTIONNAIRE FOR RESIDENTS. 46

SECTION A: Demographic information. 46

SECTION B: Influence of Resources Competition. 46

SECTION C: Influence of Human Migration Settlement 47

SECTION D: Influence of Human Invasion to Protected Areas. 47

SECTION E: KWS Conservation Measures. 48

SECTION F: Indicators of Human-Wildlife Conflict 50

APPENDIX III: Interview Schedule for KWS Officers. 51

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APA

Chelsea, L (2019). FACTORS INFLUENCING HUMAN WILDLIFE CONFLICT IN COMMUNITIES SURROUNDING PROTECTED AREAS AT OL PEJETA CONSERVANCY, TIGITHI WARD, LAIKIPIA COUNTY, KENYA. Afribary.com: Retrieved March 25, 2019, from https://afribary.com/works/factors-influencing-human-wildlife-conflict-in-communities-surrounding-protected-areas-at-ol-pejeta-conservancy-tigithi-ward-laikipia-county-kenya

MLA 8th

Langat, Chelsea. "FACTORS INFLUENCING HUMAN WILDLIFE CONFLICT IN COMMUNITIES SURROUNDING PROTECTED AREAS AT OL PEJETA CONSERVANCY, TIGITHI WARD, LAIKIPIA COUNTY, KENYA" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 20 Feb. 2019, https://afribary.com/works/factors-influencing-human-wildlife-conflict-in-communities-surrounding-protected-areas-at-ol-pejeta-conservancy-tigithi-ward-laikipia-county-kenya . Accessed 25 Mar. 2019.

MLA7

Langat, Chelsea. "FACTORS INFLUENCING HUMAN WILDLIFE CONFLICT IN COMMUNITIES SURROUNDING PROTECTED AREAS AT OL PEJETA CONSERVANCY, TIGITHI WARD, LAIKIPIA COUNTY, KENYA". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 20 Feb. 2019. Web. 25 Mar. 2019. < https://afribary.com/works/factors-influencing-human-wildlife-conflict-in-communities-surrounding-protected-areas-at-ol-pejeta-conservancy-tigithi-ward-laikipia-county-kenya >.

Chicago

Langat, Chelsea. "FACTORS INFLUENCING HUMAN WILDLIFE CONFLICT IN COMMUNITIES SURROUNDING PROTECTED AREAS AT OL PEJETA CONSERVANCY, TIGITHI WARD, LAIKIPIA COUNTY, KENYA" Afribary.com (2019). Accessed March 25, 2019. https://afribary.com/works/factors-influencing-human-wildlife-conflict-in-communities-surrounding-protected-areas-at-ol-pejeta-conservancy-tigithi-ward-laikipia-county-kenya