Research Papers/Topics in Life Sciences

Managing Aflatoxin – Producing Fungi Using Indigenous Atoxigenic Strains Of Aspergillus Species In Groundnut In Mtwara Region, Tanzania

The present study was conducted from January to October 2018 in Mnanje, Mpeta and Naliendele villages to determine aflatoxin levels in dried groundnut kernels, to identify toxigenic and atoxigenic strains of Aspergillus section Flavi from soil samples and to test the effect of atoxigenic strains against aflatoxin-producing fungi in groundnut. Isolation of fungi was done on MRBA and AFPA media and analysis of aflatoxin levels in groundnut was conducted using HPLC. The ...

Larvicidal And Phytochemical Analysis Of Hypoestes Forskaolii Extracts Against Anopheles Gambiae, Aedes Aegypti And Culex Quinquefasciatus

ABSTRACT This research evaluated larvicidal potencies and phytochemical analysis of Hypoestes forskaolii (vahl) R. Br root extracts. Larvicidal activities were tested to Anopheles gambiae, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. World Health Organization protocol for evaluating and testing insecticides was adopted with minor modification. Larvae of these mosquitoes were allowed to interact with extracts prepared in different concentration ranging between 25 to 750 μg/mL and the death...

Effect Of Intercropping Selected Pesticidal Plants With Common Bean On Aphids Infestation And Natural Enemies Abundance In Arusha, Tanzania

ABSTRACT A Randomized Complete Block Design experiment was laid out in four replications to evaluate abundance of natural enemies (NEs) and aphid infestation on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) when intercropped with pesticidal plants (PPs) namely Tagetes minuta, Bidens pilosa, Ageratum conyzoides, Ocimum suave and Hyptis suaveolens. The results showed that PPs attracted NEs and pollinators and reduced aphid infestation with no or little negative effect on bean actual yield. Increased...

Effectiveness Of Biological Control And Socioeconomic Impacts Of The Invasive Parthenium Hysterophorus In Arusha, Tanzania

ABSTRACT This study assessed the methods which are likely to be biologically and socio-economically effective to control the invasive species P. hysterophorus in Arusha Tanzania. A variety of methods have been found ineffective in long-term control of P. hysterophorus. Thus, an effective integrated approach needs to be identified. In addition, perception and socioeconomic consequences about P. hysterophorus by farmers and pastoralists are still poorly understood. The study assessed the e...

Determining Aflatoxins Contamination In Locally Processed Peanut Butter Using Fluorometry And Hplc In Arusha City, Tanzania

ABSTRACT Food poisoning with mycotoxins produced by fungi is a global food safety issue. The consumption of mycotoxin-contaminated foods is responsible for several foodborne diseases outbreak worldwide. While peanuts are an important crop with both economic and nutritional significance in tropical and subtropical regions, their vulnerability to aflatoxin contamination, for example, makes them unsuitable for human consumption. This study aimed at assessing the aflatoxin contamination of ...

Development Of A Natural Product Rich In Bioavailable Omega-3 Dha And Epa Using Locally Available Ingredients In Tanzania

ABSTRACT Poor mental health remains a serious public concern worldwide. The most vulnerable individuals are children and adolescents in developing countries. Nutritional deficiency of Omega-3 DHA and EPA has long been recognized as a major contributing factor for mental health illnesses. Provision of ready-to-use natural product rich in preformed Omega-3 DHA could address this problem. However, most commonly used products are expensive and contain less or no preformed Omega-3 DHA, makin...

Effectiveness Of Pesticidal Plant Extracts On Field And Post-Harvest Pests In Bambara Groundnuts In Tanzania

ABSTRACT A randomized complete block design (RCBD) experiment was conducted to assess the effectiveness of Bidens pilosa, Lantana camara, Vernonia amygdalina, Tithonia diversifolia, Tephrosia vogelii and Lippia javanica against field pests of bambara groundnuts. The extracts were prepared by dissolving powder of the plants leaves at the concentration of 10% (w/v) in tap water containing 1% soap and left for 24 hours. Then, extracts were sprayed on 2 weeks seedlings of bambara groundnut ...

Developing An Eco-Friendly And Bio-Managment Stratergy Against Parthenium Hysterophorus (L.) In Arusha, Tanzania

ABSTRACT This study aimed at studying the suppressive effects of Sorghum bicolor, Tagetes erictus Amaranthus spinous and Sorghum arundinaceum and Cassia tora on germination and development of Parthenium hysteroporus L. under controlled experiments from March 2018 to November 2018 in Arusha Tanzania. Two experiments involving seed-seed interaction and effects of plant extract on carrot-weed were established. Results showed that seeds of S. bicolor, T. erictus A. spinous and S. arundinace...

Encroachment Dynamics Of Acacia Drepanolobium In Maswa Game Reserve

ABSTRACT Habitat degradation, caused in particular by woody plant encroachment, has been a common phenomenon in savanna ecosystems. With increasing woody plant cover in open savanna grassland, structural changes and their associated impact need to be assessed and quantified. We analyzed the extent of woody plant encroachment via remote sensing and assessed encroached sites and open grassland of Maswa Game Reserve on the ground to identify and examine encroaching woody plant species and ...

Persistence And Diversity Of Theileria Parva In East Coast Fever Vaccinated And Unvaccinated Cattle

ABSTRACT Infection and Treatment Method (ITM) has been practiced in Tanzania for over 20 years now as a prevention method against East Coast Fever (ECF). However, there is less information regarding the persistence of the Theileria parva parasites after a long-time lapse after vaccination. Likewise, the implication of the potential exchange of genetic information is largely unknown as regards ECF vaccination outcomes. A total number of 336 cattle samples were collected from Loiborsoit, ...

Exploring The Relationship Between Diabetes Mellitus And Environmental Fluoride Contamination In Selected Areas Of Tanzania

ABSTRACT Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in Tanzania is on the increase. Some few studies have linked fluoride contamination with possibilities of having effects on the insulin production resulting to Diabetes Mellitus. This has not been fully explored in Tanzania. Therefore, this study was undertaken to examine any relationship between fluoride levels in human blood serum and Diabetes Mellitus status of individuals in specific two wards of Tanzania. Cross sectional survey was conducted...

Antimicrobial And Cytotoxicity Activities Of Conyza Bonariensis, Tribulus Terrestris And Rubia Cordifolia Growing In Arusha, Tanzania

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial, synergistic and cytotoxicity activities of Conyza bonariensis, Tribulus terrestris and Rubia cordifolia growing in Tanzania. Two fungal strains, four Gram-negative bacteria and one Gram-positive bacterium all being human pathogens were tested using 96 well microdilution method. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) was used to determine antimicrobial and synergistic activity of the extracts whereas LC50 values on brine...

Resilience And Economic Benefits Of Climate Smart Agriculture Practices In Semi-Arid Tanzania

ABSTRACT The shift of growing seasons onset due to rainfall and seasonal variability are among the climate change impacts affecting agricultural productivity in semi-arid. Seasonal variations in planting dates in semi-arid Tanzania because of climate variability and change make difficulties among farmers in determining the appropriate planting dates. Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) practices are reinforced to mitigate such climate change impacts and sustain crop production, though there...

Infestation Assessment Of Banana Weevil (Cosmopolites Sordidus Germar) In Different Banana-Based Farming Systems In Arusha And Kilimanjaro Regions, Tanzania

ABSTRACT The present study was conducted to determine population size, infestation level and farmer’s understanding of banana weevils in different banana-based farming systems (BFS) namely banana monoculture, banana-beans, banana-coffee and banana-maize. This was conducted by using banana pseudostem traps, coefficient of infestation method and standard interviewing. It was conducted from June to September 2017 in Nkoaranga, Mbuguni and Ngurdoto villages (Meru District) and Uduru, Uraa...

Effects Of Annual Field Margin Insecticidal Plants In Attracting Natural Enemies And Controlling Bean Insect Pests

ABSTRACT The research assessed the potentiality of four insecticidal plants (Dysphania ambrosoides, Hyptis Suavelons, Ocimum suave and Sphaeranthus suaveolens) with field margin in attracting natural enemies, controlling insect pests and their contribution on yields in common bean production. The study findings indicated that field margins with Ocimum suave significantly (P ≤ 0.001) attracted more natural enemies than the other three insecticidal plants. Also, there was a significance...


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