Research Papers/Topics in Electrical Electronics Engineering

Analysis Of Radio Propagation Characteristics For An Operative GSM Network

Abstract: This research work seeks to analyze the radio propagation characteristics of a GSM operative network using Makurdi as a case study. The analysis of radio propagation by a GSM operative entails the characteristics/ behavior of the radio wave between the transmitter and the receiver. An understanding of the radio wave propagation characteristics of an environment is a necessary condition for effective radio network planning which translate to the determination of the coverage stre...

Carrier Transport and Recombination In A-SI: H PIN Solar Cells in Dark and Under Illumination

Abstract A study has been carried out on the forward bias dark current and the short circuit current-open circuit voltage characteristics of a-Si: H pin solar cells over wide range of illumination intensities. Results are presented with superposition of these characteristics over extended current voltage regimes. This and the observed separation between these characteristics are consistent with the arguments presented based on first principle arguments.

Optimization of open circuit voltage in amorphous silicon solar cells with mixed-phase (amorphous+nanocrystalline) p-type contacts of low nanocrystalline content

Both the origins of the high open circuit voltages (VOC) in amorphous silicon solar cells having p layers prepared with very high hydrogen dilution and the physical structure of these optimum p layers remain poorly understood topics, with several studies offering conflicting views. This work attempts to overcome the limitations of previous studies by combining insights available from electronic measurements, real time spectroscopic ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy, and both high-resoluti...

Industrial Symbiosis for Very Large Scale Photovoltaic Manufacturing

In order to stabilize the global climate the world’s governments must make significant commitments to drastically reduce global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. One of the most promising methods of curbing GHG emissions is a world transition from fossil fuels to renewable sources of energy. Solar photovoltaic (PV) cells offer a technically sustainable solution to the projected enormous future energy demands. This article explores utilizing industrial symbiosis to obtain economies of scale an...

Optimizing Design of Household Scale Hybrid Solar Photovoltaic + Combined Heat and Power Systems for Ontario

This paper investigates the feasibility of implementing a hybrid solar photovoltaic (PV) + combined heat and power (CHP) and battery bank system for a residential application to generate reliable base load power to the grid in Ontario. Deploying PV on a large-scale has a penetration level threshold due to the inherent power supply intermittency associated with the solar resource. By creating a hybrid PV+CHP system there is potential of increasing the PV penetration level. One year of one seco...

Expanding Photovoltaic Penetration with Residential Distributed Generation from Hybrid Solar Photovoltaic Combined Heat and Power Systems

The recent development of small scale combined heat and power (CHP) systems has provided the opportunity for in-house power backup of residential-scale photovoltaic (PV) arrays. This paper investigates the potential of deploying a distributed network of PV CHP hybrid systems in order increase the PV penetration level in the U.S. The temporal distribution of solar flux, electrical and heating requirements for representative U.S. single family residences were analyzed and the results clearly sh...

Cleaner production via industrial symbiosis in glass and largescale solar photovoltaic manufacturing

In order to alleviate production costs and increase the environmental performance of solar photovoltaic manufacturing, an eco-industrial park for GW-scale production of PV is proposed. This article quantifies the inputs and outputs for the glass manufacturing component of such a system using standard manufacturing techniques. Utilizing industrial symbiosis in this way, potential reductions for such a plant were found to be about 30,000 tons/year in raw materials and over 220,000 GJ/year in em...

Leveraging Photovoltaic Technology for Sustainable Development in Ontario's Aboriginal Communities

"The Ontario feed-in tariff (FIT) for solar photovoltaic (PV) technology has provided Ontario's Aboriginal communities with an opportunity to i) weaken the cycle of poverty; ii) directly counteract climate change by producing renewable energy; and iii) become more self-sufficient. This paper critically analyzes the technical, cultural, and economic viability of leveraging the FIT for PV to provide green electricity and revenue to assist First Nations communities in sustainable development. A ...

Dispatch Strategy and Model for Hybrid Photovoltaic and Trigeneration Power Systems

The advent of small scale combined heat and power (CHP) systems has provided the opportunity for in-house power backup of residential-scale photovoltaic (PV) arrays. These hybrid systems enjoy a symbiotic relationship between components, but have large thermal energy wastes when operated to provide 100% of the electric load. In a novel hybrid system is proposed here of PV-trigeneration. In order to reduce waste from excess heat, an absorption chiller has been proposed to utilize the CHP-produ...

A Review of Solar Photovoltaic Levelized Cost of Electricity

As the solar photovoltaic (PV) matures, the economic feasibility of PV projects are increasingly being evaluated using the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) generation in order to be compared to other electricity generation technologies. Unfortunately, there is lack of clarity of reporting assumptions, justifications and degree of completeness in LCOE calculations, which produces widely varying and contradictory results. This paper reviews the methodology of properly calculating the LCOE f...

Diverting Indirect Subsidies from the Nuclear Industry to the Photovoltaic Industry: Energy and Economic Returns

Nuclear power and solar photovoltaic energy conversion often compete for policy support that governs economic viability. This paper compares current subsidization of the nuclear industry with providing equivalent support to manufacturing photovoltaic modules. Current U.S. indirect nuclear insurance subsidies are reviewed and the power, energy and financial outcomes of this indirect subsidy are compared to equivalent amounts for indirect subsidies (loan guarantees) for photovoltaic manufacturi...

Institutional-Scale Operational Symbiosis of Photovoltaic and Cogeneration Energy Systems

Due to the negative environmental effects of fossil fuel combustion, there is a growing interest in both improved efficiency in energy management and a large-scale transition to renewable energy systems. Using both of these strategies, a large institutional-scale hybrid energy system is proposed here, which incorporates both solar photovoltaic energy conversion to supply renewable energy and cogeneration to improve efficiency. In this case, the photovoltaic reduces the run time for the cogene...

Accelerating the Growth of Solar Photovoltaic Deployment with Peer to Peer Financing

Solar photovoltaic (PV) technology is a means of increasing energy security whilst reducing the negative externalities of fossil fuel dependence. Programs, such as feed-in-tariffs (FITs) implemented in many countries for on-grid PV, provide economic incentives for investment. On the other hand, off-grid PV systems reduce energy poverty and increase both entrepreneurial productivity and return in rural isolated areas. Despite these social and economic justifications, there is still limited acc...

Open Solar Photovoltaic Systems Optimization

A partnership has formed between eighteen organizations to produce the Open Solar Outdoors Test Field (OSOTF), which has been designed to provide critical data and research on solar photovoltaic (PV) systems optimization in the public domain. Unlike many other projects, the OSOTF is organized under open source principles. All data and analysis when completed will be made freely available to the entire photovoltaic community and the general public. This paper documents how the teamwork between...

Incorporating Shading Losses in Solar Photovoltaic Potential Assessment at the Municipal Scale

Recently several algorithms have been developed to calculate the solar photovoltaic (PV) potential on the basis of 2.5D raster data that can capture urban morphology. This study provides a new algorithm that (i) incorporates both terrain and near surface shadowing effects on the beam component; (ii) scales down the diffuse components of global irradiation; and (iii) utilizes free and open source GRASS and the module r.sun in modeling irradiation. This algorithm is semi-automatic and easy to u...

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