Earth Science Research Papers/Topics

Hydroclimate changes in eastern Africa over the past 200,000 years may have influenced early human dispersal

Abstract: Reconstructions of climatic and environmental conditions can contribute to current debates about the factors that influenced early human dispersal within and beyond Africa. Here we analyse a 200,000-year multi-proxy paleoclimate record from Chew Bahir, a tectonic lake basin in the southern Ethiopian rift. Our record reveals two modes of climate change, both associated temporally and regionally with a specific type of human behavior. The first is a long-term trend towards greater ar...

Understanding Striga occurrence and risk under changing climatic conditions across different agroecological farming systems at local and regional scales

Abstract: The invasion by Striga in most cereal crop fields in Africa has posed an acute threat to food security and socioeconomic integrity. Consequently, numerous technological and research developments have been made to minimize and even control the Striga impacts on crop production. So far, efforts to control Striga have primarily focused on the manipulation of the genetics of the host crops, as well as understanding the phenological and physiological traits, along with the chemical comp...

Sanghar, Sindh, Pakistan Flood Condition in 2022 as compare to 2020

Abstract:  Detailed study of the reasons of flood and impact on the environment in the Sanghar district of the province of Sindh Pakistan. The Flood effects this area very large scale. The tiles downloaded from the USGS from the time period of 2017 to 2019 and the 2020 to 2022. Major focus on the 2022 flood because flood is coming in the 2022 in this area.

Effects Of Rainfall Variability On Farming Activities In Machakos Sub County, Kenya

ABSTRACT Varying climatic conditions with increased uncertainty mainly in rainfall and temperature are salient features in marginal areas globally, adversely affecting farming activities particularly in Africa. Kenya experiences variations of annual rainfall with considerable uncertainty. These variations ranging from below 500mm to above 2000mm annually, cause droughts and floods respectively, affecting farming activities and yields. This study focused on Machakos sub County, a semi arid are...

Environmental Consequences Related To Poor Adherence To Standard Mining Practices By Artisanal And Small Scale Miners: The Case Of Ashiraq Mines, Tanzania

Abstract This study assesses the contribution of small scale mining towards environmental degradation. Field observation, insitu measurements and laboratory analysis were conducted to determine environmental consequences caused by poor adherence to standard mining practices by artisanal and small scale miners in Ashiraq Mines in Tanzania. Field observation revealed significant land and soil disturbance in the study area such as the existence of abandoned old workings. Direct measurements of p...

Sorption-Desorption Tests On The Performance Of Non-Hazardous Industrial Wastes In Decreasing Leachability Of Trace Metals On Contaminated Lands

Box 35176, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Abstract Soil stabilization by addition of industrial solid wastes in order to increase trace metals retention and (a minor secondary effect) to dilute their concentrations is an environmentally friendly and attractive soil remediation process that attenuates trace metals impact. In this study, non-hazardous industrial by-products (sugar foam, gypsum, zeolitic materials and fly ashes) were tested using laboratory scale STECH,4(2), S/NO 10, MAY, 2015 87 Copyr...

Sorption Characteristics Of Hexavalent Chromium In The Soil Based On Batch Experiment And Their Implications To The Environment

Abstract The objective of this experimental study was to determine the kinetics and equilibrium sorption of Cr(VI) in soils collected from Hengshui City of Hebei Province, China, based on batch experiments. The main concentration for this paper is on the effect of soil pH, solute concentration and ionic strength as the variable factors in the sorption of Cr(VI) in soils and the assessment of their implications to the environment. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) was used for Cr(III) ...

Assessment Of Soil Pollution (Heavy Metal) From Small Scale Gold Mining Activities: A Case Of Nyarugusu Gold Mines, Geita – Tanzania

Abstract This research study investigated the concentrations of some heavy metals (Hg, Pb, Cu and Zn) in soil samples collected from Nyarugusu Gold Mines (located in Geita Region, Tanzania) using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The results obtained showed that average concentration for Hg (25.45 mg/kg) was higher than the tolerable limits recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA). The average concentrations for Pb (10.14 mg/kg), Cu (19.75 mg/kg) and Zn (...

Palynological Analysis Of The St-5 And St -6 Wells, Offshore Tano Basin, South Western Ghana: Implications For Stratigraphy And Paleoenvironment

ABSTRACT Miospores and dinoflagellates recovered from sediments from the ST – 5 and ST – 6 wells, offshore Tano Basin, Western Ghana were studied in order to determine their ages, establish palynostratigraphy and determine environments of deposition. Based on First Appearance Datum (FAD) and (LAD) of marker palynomorphs, three (3) biozones were erected for miospores and dinoflagellates respectively. The characteristic taxa of each of the biozones have been discussed in detail. The three b...

Petrology And Geochemistry Of The K-Rich Granitoids In The Bole-Nangodi Belt Of The Paleoproterozoic Birimian Terrane Of Ghana

ABSTRACT The Paleoproterozoic Birimian province of Ghana is made up basically of parallel and equally spaced NE-SW trending greenstone belts (with the exception of one which trends N-S), one of which is the Bole-Nangodi belt which outcrops in the northern parts of Ghana. These belts petrologically consists of metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks, both of which are intruded by granitoids of various ages. These granitoids can broadly be grouped into four; the Cape Coast, Winneba, Dixcove and ...

Palynology, Palynofacies And Hydrocarbon Potential Of Cretaceous Sediments In The Offshore Tano Basin

ABSTRACT Data from HD-1 well, offshore Tano Basin was subjected to optical and organic geochemical analysis to reveal the palynostratigraphy, palaeoenvironments and hydrocarbon potential of the said well. Organic geochemical studies of Total Organic Carbon and Rock-Eval pyrolysis analysis as well as the microscopic investigation of the 44 slides of ditch cuttings from a depth of 3370ft – 7290ft shows four (4) types of Palynofacies associations in the HD-1 well based on the sedimentary organ...

Hydrogeological And Hydrochemical Characterization of Crystalline Basement Rocks in The Upper District Region; The Talensi District

ABSTRACT Groundwater remains the single most important source of water in Talensi district for various purposes. Notwithstanding, little research on the quality and sustainability of the resource in the district exist. Hence a comprehensive quality assessment and a quantification of groundwater resources in the shallow unconfined aquifers of the Talensi district has been conducted using conventional graphical methods, mass balance and multivariate statistical techniques coupled with steady s...

Hydrogeochemistry And Isotopic Study Of The Origin Of Underground Mine Water At Golden Star Bogoso/Prestea Limited (New Century Mines

ABSTRACT Hydrogeochemical study of the origin of underground mine water at Golden Star Bogoso/ Prestea Limited (New Century Mines) was carried out to determine the geochemical processes controlling surface water, groundwater and underground mine water and to identify the source of recharge to the underground water in the mines; investigate the hydrochemical facies of groundwater in the various aquifers (gallaries), and identify the relationship between surface water and groundwater, and under...

Seismic Interpretation Of “XY” Field In The South-Eastern Niger Delta

ABSTRACT Prospective evaluation of “XY” field in southwestern offshore Niger Delta was carried out with a view to delineate the structural and stratigraphic traps present in the study area. The research methodology involved horizon and fault mapping to produce subsurface structural maps. Attributes used to analyze the field under study includes: Variance time slice which was used to illuminates the main fault structure on the field and aid as guide to proper mapping. Similarly, this was ...

Physico-Chemical Characteristics Of Underground Water In Alaago-Alapoti Areas Ogun State, South Western Nigeria

ABSTRACT Alaago-Alapoti area constitutes part of the Eestern Dahomey Basin of South-Western Nigeria and it is characterized by different formations. Samples were collected from this area and were subjected to the laboratory for test. Nine smaples were collected from Alaago-Alapo area, five hand-dug wells and four boreholes sampled and investigated in the persent study. This study characterises the physicchemical quality of ground water obtained from the hang-dug wells and boreholes. To get a...


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