Epidemic & Community Health Research Papers/Topics

Determinants Of Water, Sanitation And Hygiene Related Morbidity Among Primary School Children In Mathare Informal Settlement, Nairobi County, Kenya

ABSTRACT Despite continued national and international efforts, access to improved water and sanitation remains limited in many developing countries. The health consequences of lacking access to clean water and proper sanitation are severe, and particularly among children. Sixty-two percent and thirty one percent of all deaths in Africa and Southeast Asia, respectively, are caused by infectious disease associated with WASH. Poor access to safe drinking water, inadequate sanitary conditions an...

Compliance To Exclusive Breastfeeding Of Children By Mothers Seeking For Maternal/Child Health Services In Mathira Sub-County Hospitals, Nyeri County, Kenya

ABSTRACT Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is the practice of feeding the infant for the first six months of life on breast milk only. This is the standard way of feeding the infants six months and below as per WHO/UNICEF recommendations.Globally, many studies have shown thatthere is increasing number of mothers who do not follow this practice for the full period of six months with, rates of as low as 13% in America, 20% in West and Central Africa and 32% in Kenya. Despite the serious consequenc...

Factors Influencing Adherence To Antiretroviral Therapy In Embu Teaching And Referral Hospital, Embu County, Kenya

ABSTRACT Adherence to antiretroviral therapy is a major predictor of the survival of individuals living with HIV/AIDS. Appropriate use of antiretrovirals (ARV’s) has improved the health of many human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive individuals. The effectiveness of HIV treatment depends on sustenance of high levels of adherence to ARV; however, ARV regimens are often complicated and can be affected by varying dosing schedules, failing to have proper dietary requirements and patients d...

Use Of Insecticide Treated Net In The Prevention Of Malaria Among Jiggery And Tea Workers In Kisii County Kenya

ABSTRACT Insecticide- treated nets (ITNs) if used correctly are the most powerful malaria control intervention tools which have been recommended by most governments in the world. Yet up to date, use is still very low in some places with only three percent of African sleeping under an ITN and about 20 percent sleeping under any kind of net. Worse still, malaria continues to be the leading cause of mortality and morbidity among the Jaggery and tea workers in both sugar cane and tea industr...

Use Of Malaria Preventive Measures By Pregnant Women In Enugu

ABSTRACT Malaria in pregnancy is a major public health problem in Nigeria leading to increase in the risk of maternal mortality, low birth weight and infant mortality. Malaria accounts for about 11% of all maternal deaths in Nigeria, and indirectly contributes to additional 11% of maternal deaths mainly by being a leading cause of anaemia in pregnancy.Prevention tools such as use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with Sulphadoxine-py...

Influence of Spousal Communication about Family Planning and HIV/AIDSrelated Issues on Modern Contraceptive Use in Nigeria

Abstract Contraceptive use in Nigeria at 15 percent is low, despite a high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence of 3.4 percent and fertility rate of 5.7 percent. We assessed the levels of spousal communication on family planning and contraception (FPC) and HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), the influence of demographic characteristics on this communication and association between this communication and the respondents’ health behaviors. We used a cross-sectional a...

Work Environment Noise Levels And Auditory Status Of Generator Users In Agbowo And Ajibode Areas Of Ibadan, Nigeria

ABSTRACT The increasing use of electric generators in small scale businesses is predicated on the erratic and inadequate power supply in Nigeria. Electric generators produce noise at levels capable of inducing hearing impairment. Hitherto, few studies have assessed the auditory status of generator users in Nigeria. This study was designed to compare the work environment noise levels and auditory status of generator users in two areas where generators are used in Ibadan. A comparative cross ...

Community-Directed Interventions For Priority Health Problems Inafrica: Results Of A Multicountry Study

Abstract Objective To deterrnine the extent to which ihe cornrnunity-directed approach used in onchocerciasis control inAfrica could effectively and efficiently provide integrated delivery of other health interventions. Methods Athree-year experirnental study was undertaken in 35 health districts frorn 2005 to 2007 inseven research sites inCarneroon, Nigeria and Uganda. Four trial districts and one cornparison district were randornly selected in each site. All districts had established iverrn...

Occult HBV infection among a cohort of Nigerian adults

Abstract Objective: To determine markers of HBV infection and detect the presence of its occult infection in serum of a cohort of adult Nigerians.  Methodology:  The study involved 28 adult Nigerians with viral hepatitis (Group 1) and 28 apparently healthy adult Nigerians as controls (Group 2). Their sera were assayed for HBsAg, HBeAg, anti-HBe, anti-HBc, anti-HBs, and anti-HCV, while HBV DNA was determined in 15 patients with chronic hepatitis. Significance of differences between the patie...

Knowledge And Attitudes Towards Mobile Phone Use To Promote Meternal And Child Health Among Women In Mushin Lagos State

ABSTRACT Mobile phone technology has been demonstrated to promote maternal and child health. However, its benefits are yet to be fully explored in Nigeria. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and attitudes towards the use of mobile phones to promote maternal and child health among, women of reproductive age group (15 - 49 years) in Mushin, Lagos, Nigeria. In this descriptive cross-sectional survey, data was collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire from 400 re...

Determinants Of Maternal Health Care Service Utilization Among Mothers Of Mount Elgon Constituency Bungoma Kenya

ABSTRACT Since independence, the Government of Kenya has made lots of efforts to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity through some women-oriented programs. These programs are included in the marginalized groups like Ogiek in Mt. Elgon Constituency in Bungoma County. Despite this, Mt. Elgon constituency in Bungoma County still had high maternal mortality and morbidity together with low utilization of maternal health care services. Reports showed low levels of skilled delivery in Mt Elgon Co...

Assessing Consumer Awareness And Usage Of Nutrition Labels On Pre-Packaged Foods In Sagnarigu Municipality

ABSTRACT Together with the excessive consumption of pre-packaged foods, insufficient awareness and use of nutrition labels have been linked to the rising epidemic of diet related chronic diseases. In Ghana, people are increasingly consuming pre-packaged foods, which are generally associated with high salt, sugar and fat contents, and other elements that can be harmful to health. This makes the use of the nutrition label very important. Therefore, this study sought to assess consumer level of ...

The Provision And Management Of Public Toilets In Wa Township

ABSTRACT Public Toilets (PTs) are used all over the world by transient populations and are usually located in public places. However in Ghana most households also depend on PTs for defecation. Due to the pressure and lack of maintenance of these PTs, it has often resulted in most of them being dirty, smelly, unhygienic etc. This research assesses the provision and management of PTs in the Wa Township of the Upper West Region. All the 44 PTs in Wa Township were selected for the study. A hand-...

Common Hepatic Complications of HIV Infection Among HIV Infected Adults in UNTH Enugu a Four Year Review

Abstract : Background: About 33 million people are infected with HIV globally with records of the greater burden of the disease in low and middle-income countries. In the face of increasing survival of HIV infected individuals some HIV patients develop certain complications arising due to the direct effect of the virus, drug-related side effects, abnormal serum liver enzymes levels, viral hepatitis, liver Common hepatic complications among HIV-infected adults in UNTH Enugu a four-year review ...

Prevalence Of Cardiovascular Risks Factors Among School Teachers In The Tamale Metropolis Of The Northern Region Of Ghana.

ABSTRACT Introduction: There is a growing awareness that premature deaths from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and other non-communicable diseases reduce productivity, curtails economic growth, and pose a significant social challenge in most countries. The impact of cardiovascular risk factors is very enormous especially on the budget of the health sector since there is an epidemiological change from pathogenic diseases to lifestyle diseases. Objectives: The main aim of the study is to invest...


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