Research Papers/Topics in Internal Medicine

Asthma-related Dyselectrolytemia in Stable and Acute Exacerbation Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease COPD Patients.

The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (COLD) recently defined COPD as "A common preventable and treatable disease characterised by persistent airflow limitation that is typically progressive and associated with an increased chronic inflammatory response of the airways and lungs to noxious particles or gases." Despite the fact that COPD patients typically exhibit the symptoms of acute respiratory infections (productive cough, dyspnoea, etc.), there may be a number of metab...

Prevalence and Factors Associated with Malaria Among Children Less Than Five Years Attending Fort Portal Regional Referal Hospital

ABSTRACT Background: Malaria in children still remains a health burden no matter the several MCPs like use of LLIN, put in place to help eradicate malaria. According to WHO, Children under 5 years of age is one of most vulnerable groups affected by malaria. In Africa, about 285 000 children died before their fifth birthdays in 2016. When exposed to plasmodium falciparum, children and pregnant mothers are at increased risk of its fatalness, say severe anemia, premature delivery, delivery of lo...

A Study of Assessment of Contraceptives Underutilization Among Women Attending Antenatal Clinic at Kiu-Th, Bushenyi District

This was a cross sectional descriptive study carried out to determine the factors leading to under utilization of modern contraceptive a mong women attending antenatal clinic in KIU-TH, Ishaka, Bushenyi district in South-Western Uganda. The specific objectives of the study was to determine the knowledge of mothers in child bearing age on contraceptive use, to determine the attitude of mothers in child bearing age towards contraceptive use, to assess mothers accessibility to modern contracepti...

Atezolizumab Plus Bevacizumab Combination Therapy Compared to Sorafenib and Atezolizumab Monotherapies for Treatment of Unresectable or Metastatic Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Background/Aim Sorafenib has been the historical first-line treatment of choice for unresectable or metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) since 2007.  However, on May 29, 2020, FDA approved atezolizumab plus bevacizumab (AB) combination for HCC and gave it priority over sorafenib.  Here, we performed a systematic review evaluating the efficacy and safety of combination immunogenic chemotherapy as first-line therapy as opposed to sorafenib (S) and atezolizumab (A) monotherapies.

Atezolizumab plus Bevacizumab vs Sorafenib or Atezolizumab Alone for Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Systematic Review

Abstract BACKGROUND Despite the use of the current standard therapy, the prognosis of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients is poor, with median survival times of 40 mo in intermediate HCC [Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage B] and 6–8 mo in advanced HCC (BCLC stage C). Although patients with early-stage HCC are usually suitable for therapies with curative intention, up to 70% of patients may manifest disease relapses at 5-year surveillance. Within the past decade, t...

Cervical Cytomorphologic Presentations: Association With Pre-Cervical Cancer Determinants In Women From Nakuru County

Cervical cancer disease is among leading global cancers in women and it causes reproductive tract ill health. The disease is preceded by pre cancer status identified by detection of abnormal cells in smears from the cervical wall. High risk genotype16 and 18 human papilloma virus is implicated. Other predisposing determinants include Chlamydia trachomatis infections, lifestyle and nutritional factors for example healthy diet inadequacies, and chronic reproductive tract ill health. The link be...

Seroprevalence And Risk Factors Associated With Rubella Virus Infection In Pregnancy And New Born Infants At Kerugoya Level 5 County Hospital, Kenya

ABSTRACT Infection with Rubella virus is a public health concern because it may lead to serious consequences such as Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) during early pregnancy. Introduction of the rubella virus vaccine in developed countries has since informed the need to assess the prevalence of rubella in the African countries and determine whether it is necessary to introduce a vaccine. This study, therefore, was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of the rubella infection in expecta...

Prevalence Of Virological Failure And Associated Factors Among Hivinfectedadults Receiving Second Line Antiretroviral Therapy In Dodoma City, Tanzania

ABSTRACT Introduction: Virological failure is one of the common challenges facing HIVinfected adultsonantiretroviral therapy programmes particularly in resource limited settings. Objective: This study was done to determine the prevalence of virological failure and associated factors among HIV-infected adults receiving second line antiretroviral therapy in Dodoma city, Tanzania. Methodology: A cross-sectional analytical hospital-basedstudy of HIV-infected adults on second line antiretroviral ...

Using The Theory Of Planned Behavior To Explain Birth In Health Facility Intention Among Expecting Couples In A Rural Setting Rukwa Tanzania: A Cross-Sectional Survey

Abstract Background: According to the theory of planned behavior, an intention to carry out a certain behavior facilitates action. In the context of birth in health facility, the intention to use health facilities for childbirth may better ensure better maternal and neonatal survival. Little is known on the influence of the domains of theory of planned behavior on birth in health facility intention. The study aimed to determine the influence of the domains of theory of planned behavior on bi...

Experiences of Home-based Caregivers of Advanced Cancer Patients from a Regional Faith-based Palliative Care Center in Kenya

Cancer is the third leading cause of mortality in Kenya. Eighty percent of cancer cases present at advanced stages, when little curative care can be done and palliative care is their best option of care. Majority of the end of life care in Kenya is done in the home setting, yet little is known about the caregiver‟s lived experiences. This qualitative study was done with the following objectives: to explore caregivers‟ burdens, to identify the perceived effects of caregiving on primar...

Prevalence, Aetiologies, Sensitivity Profile And Factors Associated With Significant Bacteriuria Among Diabetes Mellitus Patients Attending Dodoma Regional Referral Hospital

ABSTRACT Background: Diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for significant bacteriuria and hence severe and non-severe forms of urinary tract infections. There is a considerable regional variation in sensitivity profile of uropathogens in diabetics. Objectives: To determine prevalence, aetiologies, sensitivity profiles and factors associated with significant bacteriuria among patients with diabetes mellitus attending Dodoma Regional Referral Hospital. Methods: A case – control stu...