Research Papers/Topics in Pathology

Transcriptomic Signatures Of Recurrent Tuberculosis Disease And Treatment Response In Hiv-Infected Individuals

Table of Contents!Declaration!............................................................................................................................................................!I!!Acknowledgements!.......................................................................................................................................!III!!Summary!................................................................................................................................................

Characterisation Of Chilli Root Knot Nematodes (Meloidogyne Spp.) And Evaluation Of Sodom Apple (Solanum Incanum L.) Plant Extract And Trichoderma Viride C. As Control Agents In Nakuru County

ABSTRACTChilli (Capsicum annum L.) is a tropical and sub-tropical crop grown for its pungent tasting fruits and sour leaves. Chillis are prone to root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) which reduce their quality and yields. The study focused on characterisation of root knot nematodes infesting chilli in Nakuru County, investigation on the use of sodom apple fruit extracts in controlling root knot nematodes, the use of Trichoderma viride as a potential bio-control agent against root knot nemat...

Aflatoxigenic Fungi Contaminating Maize (Zea Mays L.) And The Potential Of Biological Control Using Atoxigenic Aspergillus Species

ABSTRACTAflatoxin contamination of maize is a major risk to health and well-being of Kenyan people. Aflatoxin-producing moulds viz: Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius can infect grains from pre-harvest stages in the field through to post-harvest stages in the stores. In Kenya, deaths have resulted from dramatic outbreaks of aflatoxin poisoning. Existing strategies for control of aflatoxigenic moulds mainly based on moisture reduction have been ineffective in the warm and humid a...

Malaria Parasitaemia and Humoral Immune Responses to some Defined Plasmodium Falciparum Antigens in Newborns, Infants and Adult Nigerians.

PABSTRACT A cohort of mothers and then newborns at Igbo-Ora, Oyo State was studied longitudinally for 12 months to determine the incidence of malaria parasitaemia, episodes of clinical malaria and their humoral immune response to malaria infection. Cross-sectional studies were also performed on adults at the Government Technical College, Igbo-Ora and blood donors at the University College Hospital, Ibadan during the rainy and dry seasons. Peripheral and cord blood samples were collec...

Determination Of The Effectiveness Of Trianum-P® (Trichoderma Harzianum) And Trichotech® (Trichoderma Asperellum) In The Management Of Late Blight Disease Of Tomatoes

ABSTRACTThe general objective was to evaluate the efficacy of Trichoderma species to promote the growth of tomato and to manage late blight disease under in vitro and in vivo conditions. A collection of 18 Trichoderma spp. were isolated from two commercial products (Trichotech® and Trianum-P®) that should have the antagonistic species Trichoderma asperellum and Trichoderma harzianum respectively. Cultural and molecular approaches were used to characterize the products. Differences on the gr...

Molecular Characterization And Screening Of Selected Antagonistic Microorganisms Against Major Maize And Bean Pathogens

ABSTRACTVarious plant diseases (Fusarium ear rots, bean anthracnose and damping off of seedlings) caused by phytopathogenic agents are known to cause considerable crop losses to agricultural yield all over the world. The use of antagonistic microorganisms in controlling maize and bean pathogens is an area of great potential in order to increase yield, thereof mitigate food insecurity. The aim of this study was to characterize and screen selected tropical fungi and bacteria for antimicrobial a...

Status Of Potato Bacterial Wilt In Nakuru County (Kenya) And Its Management Through Crop Rotation And Soil Amendments

ABSTRACTBacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, is the second most damaging potato diseasein tropical and sub-tropical regions causing up to 75% of crop loss and affects 77% of potatofarmers in at least 10 Counties in Kenya. Lack of actual information on the distribution ofbacterial wilt limits application of strategic approaches in curbing the disease in Nakurucounty and other parts of Kenya. A survey was undertaken using a semi structuredquestionnaire and personal observation...

Screening Of Streptomyces Isolates From Mau Forest Complex For Antimicrobial Activity Against Selected Plant Pathogens

ABSTRACTThe search for new principles in bio-control of plant pathogens different from the classical fungicides is of worldwide interest. The genus Streptomyces is the producer of about 80% of all known world antibiotics. It is of a major interest in bio control of plant pathogens. The study consisted of three steps: (i) collection of soil samples from different sites in the Mau Forest Complex and isolation of Streptomyces from these samples, (ii) screening for antimicrobial activity of the i...

Efficacy Of Atoxigenic Aspergillus Flavus (Aflasafe Ke01) On The Population Of Aflatoxigenic Fungi And Aflatoxin Contamination Of Maize (Zea Mays L.) In Alternate Seasons In Lower Eastern Ken

ABSTRACTAflasafe KE01 is a biological control product comprising of four atoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus which are native in Kenya. This study determined the efficacy of Aflasafe KE01 on the population of aflatoxin producing fungi and aflatoxin contamination of maize in alternate seasons. Field efficacy trials were carried out in aflatoxin hot spots in Kathiani and Wote sub Counties in lower Eastern Kenya. Twenty four maize fields were selected at random in each Sub County where 12 w...

Efficacy Of Host Resistance, Seed Sorting And Antifungal Plant Extracts In Management Of Angular Leaf Spot Of Common Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.)

ABSTRACTCommon bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), is the most important legume in pulses category of Kenya’s agricultural commodities and is second only to maize in importance as a food crop. Among the bean diseases angular leaf spot (ALS) caused by Phaeoisariopsis griseola is a major constraint to production in the tropics and subtropics, and causes considerable yield losses. The effectiveness of the available methods for control of angular leafspot, which include cultu...

Formulation Of Trichoderma Harzianum And Its Comparative Storage Stability In Different Substrates For The Management Of Armillaria Root Rot Of Tea

ABSTRACTArmillaria root rot has been documented as one of the major diseases of tea (Camellia sinensis) that hinders successful establishment of tea when planted shortly after deforestation. Effective methods for managing the disease have not been fully developed. Trichoderma harzianum, a soil-borne fungus, has been demonstrated to be an effective antagonist to several species of Armillaria. In this study, formulation, stability in storage and viabilit y of T. harzianum in selected substrates...

Incidences And Severity Of Maize Ear Rot Causing Pathogens And Response Of Selected Maize Hybrids To Diplodia (Stenocarpella Spp.) In Selected Counties In Nyanza Region

ABSTRACTMaize (Zea mays) is a staple food grown in almost all agro-ecological zones in Kenya. The production output is very low (2.4 million tons annually) nationally. Nyanza region contributes about 5 million bags. This is not enough to feed its population of 5 million people. Maize ear rot disease contributes to low maize productivity in Nyanza, with annual lossess due to aar rot estimated at 18 percent. These pathogens are reported to lower the quality of the maize crop and produce mycotox...

Studies On The Relationship Between Some Trace Elements And Steroid Hormones In Prostatic Disorders Amongst Nigerians

ABSTRACTBenign hyperplasia and Carcinoma of prostate are pro static disorders commonly found in aging sales. These disorders are reported to be less common amongst Nigerians, though there has been no concrete pathophysiological evidence to support this observation. The exact aetiology of these disorders has not been resolved, but some factors have been identified as being contributory to their development. Amongst these factors are androgenic hormonal control and the influence of some t...

Early Tuberculosis Immunodetection Using Genomic Antigens And Inducement Of T-Cells In Hiv+TB Subjects In Lagos, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT The probability of developing tuberculosis (TB) disease is higher in immune compromised subjects such as HIV/AIDS patients. Conventional methods of diagnosing TB which include sputum smear microscopy, culture and chest X-ray have drawbacks and established limitations. The limitations are pronounced in immunocompromised subjects. The consequence of poor diagnosis of TB especially in resources limited environment like Nigeria contributes to the rising incidence of TB. Introducing i...

Determination Of Plasma Levels Of Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 In Ghanaian Individuals With Hypertension And Chronic Kidney Disease

ABSTRACT Background: Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a newly found hormone that promotes renal phosphate excretion. It is secreted by osteocytes. In progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD), FGF23 levels increase in parallel with the deterioration of renal function, thus serves as a novel risk marker for progression of chronic kidney disease. The physiologic stimulus for FGF23 secretion is linked to hyperphosphatemia caused by phosphate load. Elevated FGF23 levels have spurious e...


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