Research Papers/Topics in Botany

Taxonomic Studies Of Lippia Javanica (Burm F.) Spreng. (Verbenaceae) Complex In East Africa Using Morphological And Molecular Characters And Evaluation Of Its Pesticidal Efficacy On Aphids

AbstractLippia javanica (Burm. F.) Spreng occurs naturally in eastern, central and southern Africa. It has widely been used as herbal tea, for ethnomedicinal applications and as a botanical pesticide. Lippia javanica species exhibit great morphological and chemical variations which are notable across a number of natural populations. Differences in morphological taxonomy on important characters such as peduncle length and number of inflorescence per axil have been reported which has led to the...

Effects Of Management And Rainfall Simulation On Soil Respiration And Soil Carbon Store In A Moist Kenyan Savanna, Ruma Lambwe Valley

ABSTRACT The demand for agricultural land is driving the conversion of moist Kenyan savannah into agroecosystems (grazing fields and croplands) and together with altered rainfall patterns, is likely modifying soil moisture, soil respiration and carbon store in the ecosystem. Nevertheless, the carbon dynamics of moist savannas plus of the converted ecosystems are poorly understood yet planning for sustainable use of the ecosystem need to be based on scientific knowledge. While previou...

AN ETHNOBOTANICAL AND Phyrochemical. STUDY OF THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF MAKUENI DISTRICT, Kenyael1

ABSTRACTOf all the uses of African plants, the aspect of medical use has probably attracted the mostattention and has also been the most complex and varied. Nearly 70,000 species of higher plantshave been used for medical purposes world wide.Medicinal plants form the key component to traditional medicine which remains the major sourceof health care for over 70% of the Kenyan population. Over 90% of the population use medicinalplants at one time or another.The increasing need to develop drugs ...

Evaluation Of Taro Leaf Blight (Phytophthora Colocasiae) Disease Incidence, Severity, Environmental Effects And Relationship Between Resistance And Agronomic Traits Of Selected Taro (Colocasi

ABSTRACTTaro (Colocasiae esculenta L. Schott) popularly known as ‘nduma’ is an aquatic plantgrown for its edible leaves and corms. It is mainly cultivated in Western and CentralKenya but its production is constrained majorly by Phytophthora colocasiae, a taro leafblight (TLB) disease. The disease causes destruction of leaf and corm. Knowledgepertaining to taro association with the disease incidence, severity, index, Rainfall, R.H,temperature, interrelationship between agronomic traits and...

Potentials For Mycoremediation Of Petroleum Products By Fungi Isolated From Irvingia Gabonensis Seeds

ABSTRACT The Petroleum Industry has a huge potential for the pollution of the environment at every stage of its operation, hence the need to constantly fashion out new strategies for maintaining the sanctity of our environment. Fungi associated with diseased Irvingia gabonensis (Baill) seeds found in the open markets were suspected to possess the ability to degrade the hydrocarbon substances contained in these seeds. These fungi were isolated bimonthly from the diseased seeds of I.gabon...

Analysis Of Pyrethrum Plant Extract And Its Anti-Aphid Effect On Growth, Yields, Chlorophyll And Phytonutrient Contents Of African Nightshades

ABSTRACTAfrican nightshades (Solanum scabrum) is one of indigenous vegetables widely consumed in Kenya. It is used for food, income and for medicinal purposes, but faces low yields due to severe damage by aphids. Yield losses due to aphids is estimated to about 84-96% in Kenya. Aphids have developed resistance to synthetic pesticides. There is need to search for ecofriendly alternatives such as the use of botanicals like pyrethrum which are cheaper. Pyrethrum extracts are known to control ins...

Biological Control Of Ceretocystis Paradoxa Dade C.Moreau Causing Black Rot Of The Oil Palm (ELAEIS GUINEENSIS JACQ) Sprouted Seeds Using Trichoderma Spp

ABSTRACT Biological control of Ceratocystis paradoxa using Trichoderma spp. were conducted on oil palm spouted seeds. Eighteen spp. of fungi belonging to ten genera were identified as fungi associated with diseased sprouted seeds. Out of these genera, Aspergillus spp. occurred most frequently and in relative abundance at 25.9%, Trichoderma spp. (23.4%), Ceratocystis paradoxa (11.1%), Fusarium spp (9.9%), Penicillium spp. (8.7%), Rhizopus sp. (7.4%) and Curvularia sp. (4.9%) respectiv...

Bioethanol (Bio-Fuel) Production From Agro-Waste Using Yeast Isolates From Nigeria

ABSTRACT Bio-fuels are fuels derived from biological materials or their by-products such as agricultural waste. A study was carried out to assess the production of bio-fuel (bioethanol) from some hydrolyzed agricultural wastes using yeast species isolated from Cola acuminata, Ipomoea batatas, Manihot esculenta, Pennisetum glaucum, Sorghum bicolor, Solanum tuberosum, Zea mays and palmwine (from Elaeis guineensis). Eight yeast species including Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis strain A,...

Profiling And Pathogenicity Of Ralstonia Solanacearum Disease Of Tomato And It’s Control Using Senna Didymobotrya And Moringa Oleifera Plant Extracts In Maseno (Kenya)

ABSTRACTTomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) is one of the most popular vegetables in the world.Tomato and its products are rich in antioxidants and vitamins C, E and carotenoids. The world consumption of tomato has increased significantly. Despite its importance, its production is below full potential due to the effect of pests and diseases such as bacterial wilt. Bacterial wilt, caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most devastating, and wide-spread bacterial diseases of crops in ...

Molecular Systematics And DNA Barcoding Of African Sapindaceae

ABSTRACT Sapindaceae Jussieu is a family of flowering plants in the order Sapindales. They exist as trees and shrubs, and tendril-bearing vines with about 140-150 genera and 1400-2000 species worldwide. Sapindaceae is economically, medicinally and aesthetically useful. This aims of this research are to carry out systematic study on African Sapindaceae and generate DNA barcodes for each species with a view to sharing the DNA barcode sequence in a public database. The taxonomy of the fami...

Evaluation Of The Antagonistic Effects Of Some Actinomycetes Species Isolated From Maseno Soils On Pyricularia Grisea Infecting Finger Millet (Eleusine Coracana (L.) Gaertn).

ABSTRACT Finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn) is one of the most important crops among the small millets. In Kenya yields are generally low, because of blast caused by the fungus Pyricularia grisea. Low finger-millet production accelerates incidences of malnutrition. Management has been challenging with cultural approach showing minimal success. Comparatively the use of actinomycetes species as a bio-control agent in management of rice blast caused by a similar pathogen, ha...

Assessment Of Water Deficit Effects On Agromorphological And Physiological Traits Of Six Bambara Groundnuts (Vigna Subterranea (L.) Verdc.) Landraces Grown In Western And Coastal Regions Of K

ABSTRACTBambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) is one of the most neglected and under-utilized African legume with the potential to alleviate food insecurity and poverty in the tropical semi-arid regions of Africa. The crop is reported to be drought tolerant and produce reasonable yields in poor soils. However key morphological and physiological attributes that confer drought tolerance to different landraces is not well established. The main objective of this study was to assess th...

Enumeration, Identification And Antagonistic Potential Of Selected Microbial Isolates From Sugarcane Variety Co 421 Rhizosphere Against Sporisorium Scitamineum In Kibos, Kisumu County, Kenya

ABSTRACTSugarcane smut disease caused by a fungus Sporisorium scitamineum is a limiting factor to cane production in Kenya. It is threatening the sugar industry due to its effect on cane quality and yields. Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is known to have microbial organisms associated with its rhizosphere with potential antagonistic activity against the fungus, however numerous studies on rhizosphere microbial diversity and their antagonistic activity against fungal plant pathogens have...

Spatial Distribution Of Atmospheric Pollen And Fungi Spores And Their Relation To Allergy In Nigeria

ABSTRACT The socioeconomic burden of pollen and fungi spores allergy are very high in terms of hospitalization, treatment, lethargy, poor concentration and behavioral changes which impact negatively on adults and children. The study of atmospheric pollen and fungal spores in the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria was carried out from June 2011 to May 2012. The aims of the study are to determine the seasonal prevalence of atmospheric pollen and fungal spores, examine the impacts of weathe...

Potentials Of Alkaloids From Panicum Maximum Florets Infected With The Fungus Tilletia Ayresii In Controlling Uterine Contraction In Spraguedawley Rats

ABSTRACT The potential of alkaloids from Panicum maximum floret infected with the fungus Tilletia ayresii in the control of uterine contraction in Sprague-Dawley rats was investigated using bioassay guided fractionation technique. Disease incidence study revealed that smut disease was significantly higher in Ikorodu site (95.00%) when compared with Akoka site (69.00%) and Isolo site (72.00%). The height of disease incidence was between the months of August and November. Thirteen species...


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