Research Papers/Topics in Crop Protection and Environmental Biology

Evaluation Of Pearl Millet (Pennisetum Glaucum L) Genotypes For Resistance To Head Smut Disease (Tolyposporium Penicillariae Bref.) In Dry Areas Of Kenya

ABSTRACT Head smut caused by Tolyposporium penicillariae Bref, is a devastating fungal disease that cause up to 30% yield losses in pearl millet Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br.). Pearl millet is the most drought tolerant cereal grown mainly by small scale farmers who cannot afford fungicides. Development of resistant genotypes offers the most economical means of head smut control however this depends primarily on the availability of sources of resistance. The study evaluated host plant resistan...

Efficacy Of Leonotis Nepetifolia L. And Ocimum Gratissimum L. Extracts In Controlling Ascochyta Blight (Phoma Exigua) Of French Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.)

French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important export vegetable crop that faces serious production challenge due to Ascochyta blight (Phoma exigua). The objectives of this studywere to determine the; (i) antifungal activities of methanol extract of Leonotis nepetifolia and  Ocimum gratissimum against Phoma exigua in vitro, (ii) fungicidal effects of extracts of the two test plants on the incidence and severity of Ascochyta blight, and yield of French bean. Methanol extracts of compo...

Management Of Ascochyta Blight Of Chickpea (Cicer Areientinum L.) Caused By Ascochyta Rabiei L. Using Fungicides

ABSTRACT Chickpea (Cicer arientinum L.) is an important dry land legume whose full potential in Kenya has not been realized due to abiotic and biotic stresses. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of seed treatment and foliar sprays as disease management options against Ascochyta blight caused by Ascochyta rabiei in chickpea. The study was conducted in two sites; Egerton University Njoro and Agricultural Training Centre (ATC) Koibatek. One genotype Chania Desi (ICCV97105) was...

Evaluation Of Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) Germplasm For Resistance To Cassava Brown Streak Disease And Virus Elimination Using In Vitro Techniques

ABSTRACT Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) is an important disease causing losses of up to 70% in the most susceptible cultivars. Its effects include: reduced root quality due to pitting, root constriction and necrosis, and reduced number and weight of tuberous roots. To contribute to CBSD management, a study was conducted to: (i) Screen East African cassava landraces and F1 populations for CBSD resistance; (ii) Analyse symptom expression and virus accumulation in CBSV graft inoculated cas...

Effects Of Npk Fertilizer And Fungicide Application Rates On The Perfomance And Management Of Late Blight (Phytophthora Infestans) In Irish Potatoes (Solanum Tuberosum L)

ABSTRACT Food insecurity has been an issue in developing nations worldwide including Kenya. This is as a result of soil related problems, climate change, crop pests and diseases among food crops. Late blight disease caused by Phytophthora infestans in Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum L) is a major challenge among the small-scale farmers in the highlands of Kenya. Yield losses as a result of late blight in Kenya are about 40 - 50%. The appropriate use of fungicides and fertilizers application r...

Effects Of Selected Cultivated Crucifers In Kenya On Fecundity, Development And Parasitism Of Diamondback Moth, Plutella Xylostella L., (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) By Parasitoid Diadegma Semic

ABSTRACT Crucifers form an important component of the livelihood of small-scale farmers in East Africa but diamondback moth (DBM) pest constrains their production. Attempts to control the pest by use of host plant resistance (HPR) have been modest especially in cultivars expressing a whitish appearance (normal wax bloom). Conversely, crucifers characterized by their shiny dark green leaves (Glossy) have shown some resistance to DBM. As a consequence, several seed companies claim resistance a...

Evaluation Of Entomopathogenic Fungal Isolates For Management Of Rhopalosiphum Padi And Metopolophium Dirhodum In Wheat (Triticum Aestivum

ABSTRACT The success of entomopathogenic fungi as microbial control agents ultimately depends on the use of the right propagule, formulated in an optimum fashion and applied at the right time to a susceptible host. In this study, the pathogenicity of six isolates of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. and 14 isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorok to Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker) and Rhopalosiphum padi (Linneaus) was for the first time determined in the laboratory. The differential...

Distribution, Molecular Diversity And Biological Characterization Of Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus In Western Kenya

ABSTRACT Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) is the main high protein legume crop in the cropping system of western Kenya. The crop is mainly grown by small-scale farmers for food and cash. Despite its importance, common bean yields are low (

Pathogenic Characterization And Distribution Of Bean Common Mosaic Virus (Bcmv) And Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus (Bcmnv) In Western Kenya

ABSTRACT Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) is an important food legume crop in Kenya. It is a major source of protein in human diet. The average yield is 530 kg ha-1 and the country production is estimated at 529,265 tons. Bean production is declining in Kenya due to various abiotic and biotic factors. Virus diseases are a major yield reduction factor in bean production. Among the diseases infecting beans, Bean common mosaic disease (BCMD) caused by Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and Bean c...

Macro Invertebrate Diversity And Physicochemical Factors As Indicators Of Water Quality Within Nzoia Sugarcane Company Nucleus In Western Kenya

ABSTRACT Sugarcane production is important in our day to day life though it causes water pollution which reduces the water quality. Despite its threat to water quality, not much is known about the impacts of agronomic inputs on macro invertebrates in Nzoia sugar Company Nucleus ecosystem. Nzoia sugar company nucleus receives water from Kuywa River which is a tributary of Nzoia River and discharges a diverse array of pollutants to the river. Studies on Nzoia sugar company nucleus to determine ...

Physicochemical Water Quality And Macroinvertebrate Occurrence In Sasala Stream Receiving Wastewater Discharge From Earthen Fishpond Farmin Kakamega County,Kenya

ABSTRACT Fish farming is now a major source of global and local fish requirements of food, raw materials, income and ecological considerations supplementing the dwindling output from the wild waters. Several systems are now in place including use of earthen, concrete, liner ponds and race ways. Earthen ponds are of major concern as they mainly depend on natural stream water sources. The ponds release their effluents containing elevated levels of nutrients as a result of fertilizers and feeds ...

Response Of Jatropha Curcas L. To Fungal Pathogens In Southwestern

ABSTRACT Cultivation of Jatropha curcas L. for production of biodiesel as an alternative source of energy is crucial for sustainable development in Nigeria. Pests and pathogens especially fungi have been reported to be a major constraint to commercial cultivation of J. curcas in Asia and some West African countries. However, this is yet to be fully investigated and documented in Nigeria. Fungal pathogens infecting J. curcas in southwestern Nigeria were therefore investigated. Two hundred plan...

Survey Of The Mango Tree Decline Disease, Characterisation Of The Causal Agent And Some Aspects Of The Biocontrol Of The Pathogen In Ghana

ABSTRACT Mango (Mangifera indica L.) production in Ghana has the potential of a being an economically viable venture capable of replacing cocoa as a major export earner. However, the crop is bedeviled by a miscellany of disease of the plant itself as well as the fruits. Recently a disease described as the ‘mango decline disease syndrome’ has been found in Ghana gradually taking a heavy toll of the crop in the field and a survey was carried out to substantiate this and prescribe a remedy. ...

Effects Of Some Cultural Practices And Some Plant Extracts On The Wilt Disease Of Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum Mill) Grown In Owerri Metropolis In Imo State, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT The effects of some cultural practices and some plant extracts on wilt disease of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) in Owerri, were studied. The experiments were conducted in 2010, 2011 and 2015 at the Teaching and Research Farm and in the Crop Science and Technology Laboratory of the School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. The investigation consisted of three (3) different experiments and each repeated two...

Response Of Jatropha Curcas L. To Fungal Pathogens In Southwestern Nigeria

ABSTRACT Cultivation of Jatropha curcas L. for production of biodiesel as an alternative source of energy is crucial for sustainable development in Nigeria. Pests and pathogens especially fungi have been reported to be a major constraint to commercial cultivation of J. curcas in Asia and some West African countries. However, this is yet to be fully investigated and documented in Nigeria. Fungal pathogens infecting J. curcas in southwestern Nigeria were therefore investigated. Two hundred plan...


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