Research Papers/Topics in Crop Protection And Environmental Biology

Population Dynamics And Management Of Vectors Of Viruses Causing Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease In Bomet County Kenya

Maize production in Kenya is under threat due to infection by maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND). The disease is known to cause intensive complete yield loss. It is caused by a synergistic infection of maize by maize chlorotic mottle virus and sugarcane mosaic virus which are mainly vectored by corn thrips (Frankliniella williamsi, Hood) and corn leaf aphids (Rhopalosiphum maidis, Fitch) respectively. This study was carried out with the aim of investigating the foll...

Soil Nematode Communities Under Organic And Conventional Farming Systems In Chuka, Tharaka Nithi County, Kenya

ABSTRACTPlant parasitic nematodes (PPN) are biotic constraints to crop production worldwide resulting in significant yield losses. Management of these nematodes has primarily depended on chemical nematicides; but due to the increased pressure for more economic and environmentally friendly strategies, alternative methods like organic and conventional amendments, have been considered. To test the efficacy of conventional and farmer practice systems against organic farming in the suppression of ...

Occurrence Of Plant Parasitic Nematodes In Commercial Pineapple Fields And Effect Of Biocontrol Agents On Meloidogyne Species In Kenya

ABSTRACTPlant-parasitic nematodes, in particular Meloidogyne spp., cause significant yield reduction in commercial pineapple (Ananas comosus) worldwide. In Kenya limited studies have been conducted on nematodes in pineapple although the main commercial producer in Kenya has sole mandate to use Telone II (1, 3-Dichloropropene) indicating the seriousness of the problem. The current study was conducted to provide an update on the occurrence of plant-parasitic nematodes in commercial pineapple fa...

Determining Pollinators, Floral Calendar And The Effect Of Pollination Deficit Of Avocado Persea Americana Mill In Kandara, Murang’a County, Kenya

ABSTRACT Avocado Persea americana Mill is an important fruit in Kenya. It is a source of vitamins, oil and income to farmers. However, its optimal production is dependent on insect pollinators. This study was undertaken to determine diversity and abundance of insects visiting avocado flowers, their diurnal visitation counts, the crop floral calendar and the effect of pollination deficit of avocado at Kandara, Murang’a County. The study was carried out in farmers’ fields in upper mi...

Effects Of Some Cultural Practices And Some Plant Extracts On The Wilt Disease Of Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum Mill) Grown In Owerri Metropolis In Imo State, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT The effects of some cultural practices and some plant extracts on wilt disease of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) in Owerri, were studied. The experiments were conducted in 2010, 2011 and 2015 at the Teaching and Research Farm and in the Crop Science and Technology Laboratory of the School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. The investigation consisted of three (3) different experiments and each repeat...

Bio-Control Of Cercospora Leaf Spot Disease Of Groundnut (Arachis Hypogeae) Using Extracts Of Moringa Oleifera Lam. And Jatropha Curcas L.

ABSTRACT The study was conducted in the School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology (SAAT) research farm. The Experiment was laid out in a RCBD form. Extracts from roots and seeds of Moringa oleifera and Jatropha curcas were tested at 10% concentration and sprayed after 2,3 and 4 weeks in three different growing periods of groundnut; 2, 3 and 4 weeks. Some plant extrated were mixed with 3ml of an emulsifier made from castor oil known as RIMULGAN and then separately added to each o...

REVIEW ON: EFFECT OF INTEGRATED WEED MANAGEMENT PRACTICE ON BREAD WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L.)

Weed infestation is one of the major biotic constraints in wheat production. Wheat is infested withdiverse type of weed flora, as it is grown under diverse agro climatic conditions, different cropping sequence, andtillage and irrigation regimes. For controlling weeds in wheat, growers mostly rely on herbicides due to cost and timeeffectiveness. For control of diverse weed flora in wheat combination of herbicides or as sequential, if not compatibleare required. However, sole dependence on herb...

Field Persistence of S-Metolachlor and Pendimethalin Iin Maize-Based Cropping System and Impact on Earthworm Activities in Ogbomoso, Nigeria

ABSTRACT Application of chemicals on weed has been an effective method of weed control. However, this is with problems of persistence and hazardous effects on non-target organisms like arthropods. Common herbicides used in maize fields in Ogbomoso include atrazine, primextra, Lasso/atrazine, diuron pendimethalin, and S-metolachlor. Information on S-metolachlor and Pendimethalin persistence under field situations is inadequate. Therefore, persistence of S-metolachlor and Pendimethalin in...

Characterization Of Russian Wheat Aphid, Diuraphis Noxia, (Homoptera: Aphididae) Populations In Kenya

ABSTRACT The Russian wheat aphid (RWA) Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) is a serious pest of wheat in Kenya. Development and use of RWA resistant wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties, has been constrained by variations in the resident RWA populations and evolution of virulent biotypes. To fully exploit host plant resistance (HPR) in management of RWA, resident populations of RWA were evaluated for biotypes in order to develop and deploy cultivars that exhibit cross biotype resistance. Thre...

Effect Of Legume Diversity Intercrop And Varieties On Population And Severity Of Damage By Foliage Beetles (Ootheca Spp. And Medythia Sp.) On Yields Of Common Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.) In

ABSTRACT Bean Foliage beetles (Ootheca spp.) are a major constraint to common bean production in Kenya. Two studies were carried out during the long and short rain seasons of 2015 to determine the effect of mixtures of bean varieties and other legume species and also to investigate the effect of different bean varieties on bean foliage beetle incidence, population density and severity of damage and grain yield. Field experiments were conducted in six sites (Madola, Bujumba, Busire, Nyal...

Evaluation Of Infestation And Damage By The Larger Grain Borer (Prostephanus Truncatus) (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) On Selected Food Grain Crops

ABSTRACT The study evaluated the ability of the larger grain borer (LGB), Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) to infest and damage two varieties of sorghum (Sorghum bicolour), Sesame (Sesamum indicum) Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and maize (Zea mays). 100 g each of the grain products were infested with 5 pairs (5 males and 5 females) of 1-10 day old LGB for 90 days. At 90 days post-infestation of the crops, the insects and grain dust generated by the feeding activities of the insects were s...

Evaluation Of Pearl Millet (Pennisetum Glaucum L) Genotypes For Resistance To Head Smut Disease (Tolyposporium Penicillariae Bref.) In Dry Areas Of Kenya

ABSTRACTHead smut caused by Tolyposporium penicillariae Bref, is a devastating fungal disease that cause up to 30% yield losses in pearl millet Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br.). Pearl millet is the most drought tolerant cereal grown mainly by small scale farmers who cannot afford fungicides. Development of resistant genotypes offers the most economical means of head smut control however this depends primarily on the availability of sources of resistance. The study evaluated host plant resistanc...

Efficacy Of Leonotis Nepetifolia L. And Ocimum Gratissimum L. Extracts In Controlling Ascochyta Blight (Phoma Exigua) Of French Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.)

French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important export vegetable crop that faces serious production challenge due to Ascochyta blight (Phoma exigua). The objectives of this studywere to determine the; (i) antifungal activities of methanol extract of Leonotis nepetifolia and  Ocimum gratissimum against Phoma exigua in vitro, (ii) fungicidal effects of extracts of the two test plants on the incidence and severity of Ascochyta blight, and yield of French bean. Methan...

Management Of Ascochyta Blight Of Chickpea (Cicer Areientinum L.) Caused By Ascochyta Rabiei L. Using Fungicides

ABSTRACTChickpea (Cicer arientinum L.) is an important dry land legume whose full potential in Kenya has not been realized due to abiotic and biotic stresses. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of seed treatment and foliar sprays as disease management options against Ascochyta blight caused by Ascochyta rabiei in chickpea. The study was conducted in two sites; Egerton University Njoro and Agricultural Training Centre (ATC) Koibatek. One genotype Chania Desi (ICCV97105) was ...

Evaluation Of Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) Germplasm For Resistance To Cassava Brown Streak Disease And Virus Elimination Using In Vitro Techniques

ABSTRACT Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) is an important disease causing losses of up to 70% in the most susceptible cultivars. Its effects include: reduced root quality due to pitting, root constriction and necrosis, and reduced number and weight of tuberous roots. To contribute to CBSD management, a study was conducted to: (i) Screen East African cassava landraces and F1 populations for CBSD resistance; (ii) Analyse symptom expression and virus accumulation in CBSV graft inoculate...


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