Microbiology Research Papers/Topics

Prokaryotic diversity and potentially pathogenic bacteria in vended foods and environmental samples

Abstract Purpose: Ready-to-eat fast food vending outlets provide a cheap and readily available food. Foodborne diseases have been previously reported in Embu, Kenya, but data on the prokaryotic metagenome in vended foods is scanty. This study aimed to determine the prokaryotic diversity in fruits, vegetable salad, African sausage, chips (potato fries), fried fish, roasted beef (meat), smokies, samosa, soil, and water collected from food vendors and the surrounding environment in Embu Town an...

Diversity of Termitomyces Associated with Fungus- Farming Termites Assessed by Cultural and Culture- Independent Methods

Abstract Background: Fungus-cultivating termites make use of an obligate mutualism with fungi from the genus Termitomyces, which are acquired through either vertical transmission via reproductive alates or horizontally transmitted during the formation of new mounds. Termitomyces taxonomy, and thus estimating diversity and host specificity of these fungi, is challenging because fruiting bodies are rarely found. Molecular techniques can be applied but need not necessarily yield the same outcom...

Isolation and characterisation of bacteria from the haloalkaline Lake Elmenteita, Kenya

Abstract Culture-independent studies show that soda lake environments harbour diverse groups of bacteria and archaea. In this study different enrichment and isolation media were used in an attempt to isolate novel groups of bacteria from Lake Elmenteita. Different media were prepared using filter-sterilised water from the lake. The isolates recovered were purified on tryptic soy agar supplemented with 1% sodium carbonate and 4% sodium chloride. Phylogenetic analysis of 181 partial 16S rRNA g...

Complete genome sequence of the gliding freshwater bacterium Fluviicola taffensis type strain (RW262T)

Abstract Fluviicola taffensis O'Sullivan et al. 2005 belongs to the monotypic genus Fluviicola within the family Cryomorphaceae. The species is of interest because of its isolated phylogenetic lo-cation in the genome-sequenced fraction of the tree of life. Strain RW262T forms a monophy-letic lineage with uncultivated bacteria represented in freshwater 16S rRNA gene libraries. A similar phylogenetic differentiation occurs between freshwater and marine bacteria in the family Flavobacteriaceae,...

Susceptibilities of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus-infected and noninfected Diaphorina citri to entomopathogenic fungi and their detoxification enzyme activities under different temperatur

Abstract: Some entomopathogenic fungi species, Isaria fumosorosea, and Hirsutella citriformis were found to be efficient against the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae). However, the susceptibility to these fungi increases when the psyllid infected with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), which is transmitted by D. citri and causes citrus greening disease. In this study, we examined the Las-infected and Las-uninfected D. citri susceptibility to entomopa...

Effects of seedling age on colonization patterns of Citrus limon plants by endophytic Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae and their influence on seedlings growth.

Abstract: The inoculation methods, the fungal strains, and several other factors are known to influent the success of fungal entomopathogens colonization in plants. The physiological status of the plant could also be another determinant. In the present study, the ability of three strains of Beauveria bassiana and one strain of Metarhizium anisopliae to successfully colonize Citrus limon plants and the influence of seedling age on endophytic colonization success was examined. Three, 4, and 6 ...

Susceptibility of Campylobacter strains to selected natural products and frontline antibiotics.

Abstract: Campylobacter species have developed resistance to existing antibiotics. The development of alternative therapies is, therefore, a necessity. This study evaluates the susceptibility of Campylobacter strains to selected natural products (NPs) and frontline antibiotics. Two C. jejuni strains (ATCC® 33560TM and MT947450) and two C. coli strains (ATCC® 33559TM and MT947451) were used. The antimicrobial potential of the NPs, including plant extracts, essential oils, and pure phytochem...

Nutritional characteristics, microbial loads and consumer acceptability of cookies enriched with insect (Ruspolia differens) meal

Abstract: Utilization of Ruspolia differens Serville as functional food ingredient is rapidly gaining popularity. This study evaluated the nutrient quality, microbial safety and consumers’ acceptability of cereal-based cookies fortified with various processed products of R. differens meals. Cookies fortified with blanched, boiled, and toasted R. differens meals had higher protein, fat and energy levels, respectively, than the control cookies. Enrichment of cookies with differentially proce...

Lineage-specific proteomic signatures in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex reveal differential abundance of proteins Involved in virulence, DNA repair, CRISPR-Cas, bioenergetics and lipi

Abstract: Despite the discovery of the tubercle bacillus more than 130 years ago, its physiology and the mechanisms of virulence are still not fully understood. A comprehensive analysis of the proteomes of members of the human-adapted Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) lineages 3, 4, 5, and 7 was conducted to better understand the evolution of virulence and other physiological characteristics. Unique and shared proteomic signatures in these modern, pre-modern and ancient MTBC lineages...

Isolation and characterization of Streptomyces species with antifungal activity from selected national parks in Kenya

Abstract: Microorganisms and their natural products are potentially important for the biological control of crop diseases without detrimental effects to the environment. In this study, acetonitrile-methanol extracts of 361 actinobacterial isolates obtained from Aberdares, Arabuko Sokoke, Lake Bogoria, Mt Kenya,Kakamega, Ruma, Shimba Hills and Imenti forest national parks in Kenya were screened for antagonism against Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium spp and Colletotrichum kahawae, which are impor...

Effects of rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on yield, size distribution and fatty acid of soybean seeds grown under drought stress

Abstract: Soybean (Glycine max L.) is among the most economically important legumes that provide more than 1/4 of food (for man) and animal feed. However, its yield is comparatively low, most especially under drought stress. The aim of this study therefore was to assess the ability of Rhizobium spp. and mycorrhizal fungi to enhance the yield, seed size and fatty acid content of soybean grown under semi-arid environment. Rhizobium sp. strain R1 was found to possess nitrogen-fixing gene conife...

Sodalis glossinidius presence in wild tsetse is only associated with presence of trypanosomes in complex interactions with other tsetse-specific factors.

Abstract: Susceptibility of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) to trypanosomes of both humans and animals has been associated with the presence of the endosymbiont Sodalis glossinidius. However, intrinsic biological characteristics of the flies and environmental factors can influence the presence of both S. glossinidius and the parasites. It thus remains unclear whether it is the S. glossinidius or other attributes of the flies that explains the apparent association. The objective of this study wa...

Characterization of the Kenyan honey bee (Apis mellifera) gut microbiota

Abstract: Gut microbiota plays important roles in many physiological processes of the host including digestion, protection, detoxification, and development of immune responses. The honey bee (Apis mellifera) has emerged as model for gut-microbiota host interaction studies due to its gut microbiota being highly conserved and having a simple composition. A key gap in this model is understanding how the microbiome differs regionally, including sampling from the tropics and in particular from Af...

Ex vivo development of Phasmarhabditis spp. associated with terrestrial molluscs

Abstract: The success of Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita (Schneider) Andrássy (Rhabditida: Rhabditidae) as a biological control agent of molluscs has led to a worldwide interest in phasmarhabditids. However, scant information is available on the lifecycle development of species within the genus. In the current study, the development of P. hermaphrodita, Phasmarhabditis papillosa, Phasmarhabditis bohemica and Phasmarhabditis kenyaensis were studied using ex vivo cultures, in order to improve o...

Case study: Vector control for malaria elimination in Botswana: progress, gaps and opportunities.

Abstract: Botswana has in the recent past 10 years made tremendous progress in the control of malaria and this informed re-orientation from malaria control to malaria elimination by the year 2020. This progress is attributed to improved case management, and scale-up of key vector control interventions; indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). However, insecticide resistance, outdoor biting and resting, and predisposing human behaviour, such as staying outdoo...


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