Heat Activated Persulfate Oxidation of Dye Solutions

Esther Isougie 54 PAGES (10346 WORDS) Thesis
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ABSTRACT

This study investigates the decolourization of reactive blue 4 textile dye solution by heat activated persulfate. Synthetic textile dyes have been found to be non-biodegradable, toxic and carcinogenic and thus potentially harmful to both the environment and living organisms when improperly discharged to the environment. A lot of attention have been given to Azo dyes which make up approximately 60% of the reactive dyes with limited study conducted on other classes of reactive dyes such as anthraquinone dyes which are extensively used in the textile industry to colour cotton as well as polyamide fibres. The use of persulfate for advanced oxidation processes is on the increase and heat activated persulfate advanced oxidation is an attractive technology for wastewater treatment. Three different temperatures 40oC, 50oC, and 60oC and dye/persulfate ratios 1/10, 1/20, 1/40, 1/80, 1/100, 1/500 were studied with dye concentration at 0.157Mm. The changes in pH values after 60mins of reaction time were observed and spectroscopic studies were used to determine the change in dye concentrations. The results showed that increasing the temperature and persulfate concentration was favourable to the degradation of the dye with decolourization efficiency as high as 99% observed at dye/persulfate ratio of 1/500 and temperature of  600C after 30mins of reaction.

TABLE OF CONTENT

ABSTRACT i

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ii

TABLE OF CONTENT iii

LIST OF FIGURES v

LIST OF TABLES vii

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS viii

CHAPTER ONE 1

INTRODUCTION 1

CHAPTER TWO 4

LITERATURE REVIEW 4

2.1 Reactive Dyes 4

     2.1.1 Reactive blue 4 4

2.2 Dye toxicity evaluation 5

2.3 Biological treatment of textile dye effluents 6

2.4 Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) 7

     2.4.1 Wet Air Oxidation 7

     2.4.2 Photocatalytic treatment 8

     2.4.3 Fenton treatment 8

         2.4.3.1 Electro-Fenton treatment 9

      2.4.4 Ozonation 9

     2.4.5 Use of Activated Carbon 10

     2.4.6 Persulfate Advanced Oxidation Process 10

2.5 Properties of Persulfates 11

2.6 Mechanism of persulfate degradation of organic compounds 11

2.7 Persulfate Activation Methods 12

     2.7.1 Base activation 12

     2.7.2 Transition metal Activation 12

     2.7.3 Radiation Activation 13

     2.7.4 Hybrid Activation 13

     2.7.5 Heat activation 14

2.8 Effect of Natural water constituents on Heat-activated Persulfate Processes. 15

     2.8.1 Chlorides, Bicarbonates and Natural Organic Matter 15

CHAPTER THREE 17

MATERIALS AND METHODS 17

3.1 Chemicals and Apparatus 17

3.2 Experimental Methodology 17

3.3 Analytical Procedure 18

3.4 Kinetics of RB4 degradation process 18

CHAPTER FOUR 19

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 19

4.1 Effect of Persulfate dosage 19

4.2 Effect of Temperature 25

4.3 KINETIC STUDY 27

4.4 CHANGE IN pH 29

CHAPTER FIVE 30

CONCLUSION 30

REFERENCES 31

APPENDIX 36

  LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2.1 Structure of reactive blue 4 5

Figure 2.2 Structure of sodium persulfate 11

Figure 4.1 Change in RB4 dye concentration with time at 400C and different PS concentrations 20

Figure 4.2 Change in RB4 dye concentration with time at 500C and different PS concentrations 20

Figure 4 3 Change in RB4 dye concentration with time at 600C and different PS concentrations 21

Figure 4.4 Standard deviation error bars at 400C and 1/10 (dye/PS) 21

Figure 4.5. Standard deviation error bars at 400C and 1/20 (dye/PS) 22

Figure 4.6. Standard deviation error bars at 400C and 1/40 (dye/PS) 22

Figure 4.7. Standard deviation error bars at 400C and 1/80 (dye/PS) 23

Figure 4.8. Standard deviation error bars at 400C and 1/100 (dye/PS) 23

Figure 4.9. Standard deviation error bars at 400C and 1/500 (dye/PS) 24

Figure 4.10. Standard deviation error bars at 500C and 1/10 (dye/PS) 24

Figure 4.11. Standard deviation error bars at 500C and 1/20 (dye/PS) 25

Figure 4.12 Change in RB4 dye concentration with time at 1:10 (dye/PS) and different temperatures. 26

Figure 4.13 Change in RB4 dye concentration with time at 1:100 (dye/PS) and different temperatures. 26

Figure 4.14 Kinetic study of RB4 degradation process at 400C and different dye/PS ratios 27

Figure 4.15 Kinetic study of RB4 degradation process at 500C and different dye/PS ratios 28

Figure 4.16 Kinetic study of RB4 degradation process at 600C and different dye/PS ratios 28

Figure A.1 Calibration curve for dye at 598nm 36

Figure A.2 Rate constants vs PS concentrations 36

LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.1 Properties of Persulfate 11

Table 4.1 Initial and final pH values 29

Table 4.2 K values (min-1) 29

Table A.1 Estimated K values (500C) 37

Table A.2 Estimated K values (600C) 37

Table A.3 Data for 1.57mM PS at 400C and 0.157mM RB4 37

Table A.4 Data for 3.14mM PS at 400C and 0.157mM RB4 38

Table A.5 Data for 6.28mM PS at 400C and 0.157mM RB4 38

Table A.6 Data for 12.56mM PS at 400C and 0.157mM RB4 39

Table A.7 Data for 15.7mM PS at 400C and 0.157mM RB4 39

Table A.8 Data for 78.5mM PS at 400C and 0.157mM RB4 40

Table A.9 Data for 1.57mM PS at 500C and 0.157mM RB4 40

Table A.10 Data for 3.14mM PS at 500C and 0.157mM RB4 41

Table A.11 Data for 12.56mM PS at 500C and 0.157mM RB4 41

Table A.12 Data for 15.7mM PS at 500C and 0.157mM RB4 42

Table A.13 Data for 1.57mM PS at 600C and 0.157mM RB4 42

Table A.14 Data for 15.7mM PS at 600C and 0.157mM RB4 43

Table A.15 Data for 78.5mM PS at 600C and 0.157mM RB4 43

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APA

Esther, I (2020). Heat Activated Persulfate Oxidation of Dye Solutions. Afribary.com: Retrieved January 24, 2021, from https://afribary.com/works/heat-activated-persulfate-oxidation-of-dye-solutions

MLA 8th

Isougie, Esther. "Heat Activated Persulfate Oxidation of Dye Solutions" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 06 Dec. 2020, https://afribary.com/works/heat-activated-persulfate-oxidation-of-dye-solutions . Accessed 24 Jan. 2021.

MLA7

Isougie, Esther. "Heat Activated Persulfate Oxidation of Dye Solutions". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 06 Dec. 2020. Web. 24 Jan. 2021. < https://afribary.com/works/heat-activated-persulfate-oxidation-of-dye-solutions >.

Chicago

Isougie, Esther. "Heat Activated Persulfate Oxidation of Dye Solutions" Afribary.com (2020). Accessed January 24, 2021. https://afribary.com/works/heat-activated-persulfate-oxidation-of-dye-solutions