Housing Satisfaction Attributes among Households in Uyo Capital City Territory, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT

In Nigeria, attempts at determining household housing satisfaction based on household income are often not guided by rigorous parameters. Past housing policy lumped income groups together, variations in income levels notwithstanding. Housing satisfaction aspirations of many people were frustrated. The unwholesome condition manifested in building alteration practices from their original forms to households’ desirable forms. The study is aimed at determining indices for various income groups in Uyo base on their identified housing satisfaction attributes and by implication guide future housing policies and programmes. In order to achieve the set goal, specific objectives were formulated to: (i) identify and classify satisfaction factors for the various income groups in Uyo, (ii) examine differences among the various income groups in Uyo, (iii) determine attributes for the low, medium, and high-income groups in Uyo, (iv) examine the relationship between housing satisfaction and socio-economic backgrounds of households and (v) determine correlations between housing satisfaction and types of house ownership by households in Uyo. The study adopted survey research design. Primary data were collected aided by structured questionnaire and interview while secondary data were obtained mainly from published and unpublished materials. The study covered an area measuring 15 kilometers radius which cuts across six other local government areas of Akwa Ibom State. The population of the study is 61,192 household heads. A total of 1783 questionnaire, representing 0.3 percent of the sampled population was distributed to household heads. Williams (1978) formula for determining sampled population as was adopted by Kerlinger and Lee (2000) was used to determine the sampled population. Stratified random sampling technique was used to draw the sample for the study. Of the 1,783 questionnaire distributed, 1,560 were returned. The instrument for the study was a structured questionnaire containing twenty-one questions. Respondents responded to on a 5- point Likert Scale. Test of reliability of the questionnaire was conducted using Cronbach alpha and the result of 0.80 was obtained while its validation were carried out by three experts: my supervisor, a statistician and a lecturer from my department. Four statistical tools were employed in the analysis to test five hypotheses. 1. Principal Component Analysis (PCA), used for testing hypothesis one and three, 2. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test hypothesis two; 3. Multiple Linear Regression (MLR-Stepwise Method) was used to test hypothesis four; 4. Spearman Correlation Technique was used to test hypothesis five. The study identified and classified fourteen significant satisfaction factors that influenced housing satisfaction of various income groups which were: 8 architectural/neighbourhood facilities, convenience and recreational, housing amenities/aesthetics, public facilities and security, community facility and comfort, housing investment reward, housing materials and design, health considerations, protection against hazard, functional housing amenities, ease of movement and leisure, housing facilities, structural stability/facilities, and cross ventilation. These factors had cumulative percentage of variance explained with Eigen Value of 54.746 representing 96.78 percent of the total variability of the model. The result show differences among the three income groups in the study area as the one-way ANOVA result was (df 2 (1557), F= 34.829, P = 0.000, p < 0.05 significant level), as medium and high-income groups were in one sub-set and low and high-income groups were in a different subset. PCA housing satisfaction analysis for the three income groups showed 81.11%, 81.98% and 84.15% for low, medium and high. Housing satisfaction related with only two socio-economic variables: education and income levels with a fine fit (R2 adjusted = 90.90%) indicating strong relationship, excluding age that was insignificant. House owners and tenants co-related at 0.01 with 0.87 correlation using Spearman’s Correlations technique. The major findings of the study attested that housing satisfaction factors are the determinants of housing satisfaction among households in Uyo Capital City Territory, and in similar Nigerian cities. 


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page - - - - - - - - - - i

Abstract - - - - - - - - -- - ii

Table of contents - - - - - - - - - iv

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION - - - - - - - - 1

1.10 Background of the Study - - - - - - - 1

1.20 Statement of the Problem - - - - - - 4

1.30 Goal and Objectives- - - - - - - - 8

1.31 Goal - - - - - - - - - - 8

1.32 Objectives - - - - - - - - 8

1.40 Research Questions - - - - - - - - 9

1.50 Statement of Hypotheses - - - - - - - 9

1.51 Presentation of Variables - - - - - - - 10

1.60 Scope of the Study - - - - - - - 13

1.70 Limitations of the Study - - - - - - 14

1.80 Significance of the Study - - - - - - - 15

1.90 - Organization of the Study - - - - - - 17

1.100 Definition of Terms - - - - - - - 17

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK - - - - - - 19

2.10 The Fundamental Theory of Supply and Demand - - - 19

2.11 The Application of Theory of Demand, Supply, and Market to Housing Satisfaction - - - - - - - 20

2.20 Cobweb Theory to Demand, Supply, and Price - 25

2.30 Model for Generating Optimal Housing Mechanism - - 28

2.40 Basic Satisfaction Approaches and Conceptualization - - 31

2.50 Expectancy Theory - - - - 36

2.60 Theory of Basic Satisfaction - - - - 37

2.70 Theory of House Ownership and Housing Satisfaction - - 40

2.80 Theory of Residential Neighbourhood and Eco-Housing - - 42

2.90 Differences in Conceptualization of Shelter and Housing - - 46

2.100 Strength, Weaknesses and Gap of Theoretical Framework - 50

 CHAPTER THREE

3.0 LITERATURE REVIEW - - - - - - - 53

3.10 Global Overview of Housing Satisfaction - - - - 53

3.20 Identification of Factors and Measurement of Housing Characteristics - - - - - - - - 57

3.30 Differences in Housing Satisfaction among various Income Groups 69

3.40 Predictors of Housing Satisfaction Attributes among Income Groups 76

3.50 Development of Socio-economic Indicators for Measurement of Housing Satisfaction - - - - - - - - 78

3.60 Assessment of Tenants’ and House Ownership Statuses with Housing Satisfaction - - - - - - - - 88

3.70 Other Related Studies on Housing Satisfaction - - - 92

3.71 Methods of Assessing Household Housing Satisfaction - - 92

3.72 Socio-Cultural, Land Use Policy and Housing Satisfaction - - 95

3.73 Review of Households’ Participation in Housing Programmes - 108

3.74 Existing Housing Situation in the Southern Nigeria - - 111

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 THE STUDY AREA - - - - - - - - 115

4.10 Geographical Location of Uyo Capital City Territory - -115

4.20 Historical Background of Uyo Capital Territory - - - 119

4.30 Physical Features of Uyo Capital City Territory - - -121

4.31 Topography and Drainage - - - - - - -121

4.32 Climate- - - - - - - - - -122

4.33 Vegetation - - - - - - - - -126

4.34 Temperature - - - - - - - - -127

4.35 Soils - - - - - - - - - -127

4.40 Existing Housing and Demographic Situation in Uyo - - -128

4.41Population and Population Growth Trend - - - -128

4.42 Existing Housing Situation in Uyo Capital Territory - - -130

4.50 The Case Study of Sectorial Zones - - - - -132

4.51 The Sectorial Divisions of Uyo Capital Territory - - -132

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 METHODS AND PROCEDURS - - - - - -144

5.10 Method of Data Collection- - - - - - -144

5.11 Secondary Materials - - - - - - -144

5.12 Primary Materials - - - - - - - -145

5.20 Sample Frame and Sample Size - - - - -145

5.21 Sample Frame - - - - - - - -145

5.22 Sample Size - - - - - - - - -145

5.23 Stratified Sampling Technique - - - - - -147

5.24 Stratified Random Sampling Technique Application - - -148

5.25 Questionnaires Distribution - - - - - -152

5.40 Description of the Questionnaire Format - - - -153

5.50 Description of Statistics Used in the Analysis - - - -155

5.51 Descriptive Statistics - - - - - - -155

5.52 Inferential Statistics - - - - - - - -156

5.521 Principal Component Analysis (PCA) - - - - -156

5.522 Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) - - - - - -160

5.523 Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) - - - - -162

5.524 Spearman Correlation Technique (rs) - - - - -165

5.60 Validation and Reliability of Instruments - - - -166

CHAPTER SIX

6.0 DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND FINDINGS - - -167

6.10 Data Presentation and Analysis - - - -167

6.11 Sex of the Respondents - - - - - - -167

6.12 Age of the Respondents - -- - - - - -168

6.13 Marital Status of the Respondents - - - - -169

6.14 Educational Status of the Respondents - - - - -170

6.15 Household Size of the Respondents - - - - -171

6.16 Duration of living of the Respondents - - - - -172

6.17 Occupation of the Respondents - - - - - -173

6.18 Income level of the Respondents- - - - - -174

6.19 Expenditure Pattern of the Respondents - - - -176

6.20 Types of housing occupied by Respondents - - - -177

6.21 Transportation Mode and Option of the Respondents - -178

6.30 Satisfaction with Access to Housing and House Ownership - -179

6.31 Satisfaction with House Ownership of the Respondents - -179

6.32 Reasons for Tenant’s Household inability to own a house 181

6.33 Tenants’ Savings Initiatives to attain House Ownership Status -182

6.34 Tenants Satisfaction with Access to Public Housing - - -183

6.35 Tenants Satisfaction with Access to Private Housing - - -184

6.36 Tenants Satisfaction with Access to Official Quarters - -186

6.37 Landlord’s Satisfaction with Use of Foreign and Local Building Materials - - - - - - - - - -187

6.38 Landlord’s Benefited from Public Housing Programmes - -190

6.381 Landlord’s Satisfaction with Public Constructed Housing - -192

6.39 Reasons for Landlord’s Inability to Benefit from Public Housing -193

6.40 Selection of Primary Housing Satisfaction Determining Variables -194

6.41 Analysis of the 66 Primary Housing Variables - - -198

6.42 Analysis of Housing Satisfaction Levels for Low, Medium and High Income Groups - - - - - - - -206

6.43 Principal Component Analysis for Low Income Group - -208

6.44 Principal Component Analysis for Medium Income Group - -211

6.45 Principal Component Analysis for High Income Group - -214

6.50 Test of Research Hypotheses - - - - - -216

6.51 Research Hypothesis One - - - - - -216

6.52 Research Hypothesis Two - - - - - -219

6.53 Research Hypothesis Three: - - - - - -220

6.54 Research Hypothesis Four:- - - - - - -226

6.55 Research Hypothesis Five - - - - - - -228

6.60 Discussions of Findings - - - - - - -229

6.61 Objective One - - - - - - -229

6.62Objective Two- - - - - - - - -240

6.63Objective Three - - - - - - -242

6.64 Objective Four - - - - - - -246

6.65 Objective Five - - - - - - - -251

6.70 Summary of Findings - - - - - - - 255

CHAPTER SEVEN

7.0 RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION - - -258

7.10 Recommendations - - - - - - - -258

7.20 Conclusion - - - - - - - - -260

7.30 Policy Guidelines and Contribution to Knowledge - - -262

References - - - - - - - - - -263

Appendixes - - - - - - - - - -284

Questionnaire----315

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APA

Consults, E. & OKON, E (2023). Housing Satisfaction Attributes among Households in Uyo Capital City Territory, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/housing-satisfaction-attributes-among-households-in-uyo-capital-city-territory-akwa-ibom-state-nigeria

MLA 8th

Consults, Education, and ETUK OKON "Housing Satisfaction Attributes among Households in Uyo Capital City Territory, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria." Afribary. Afribary, 19 Apr. 2023, https://afribary.com/works/housing-satisfaction-attributes-among-households-in-uyo-capital-city-territory-akwa-ibom-state-nigeria. Accessed 23 May. 2024.

MLA7

Consults, Education, and ETUK OKON . "Housing Satisfaction Attributes among Households in Uyo Capital City Territory, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.". Afribary, Afribary, 19 Apr. 2023. Web. 23 May. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/housing-satisfaction-attributes-among-households-in-uyo-capital-city-territory-akwa-ibom-state-nigeria >.

Chicago

Consults, Education and OKON, ETUK . "Housing Satisfaction Attributes among Households in Uyo Capital City Territory, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria." Afribary (2023). Accessed May 23, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/housing-satisfaction-attributes-among-households-in-uyo-capital-city-territory-akwa-ibom-state-nigeria