1.1GENERAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Over some years ago, psychologist, manager and the student of management have given increase attention to the need for human motivation at the work place. They found this concept useful to both explaining human behaviour, particularly in work situation to increase the productivity of workers.
The purpose of motivation is to optimize one’s performance and to attain a standard of excellence in any endeavour manager in all types of organisation are continually faced with the problem of vast difference that exist in the formance or output of individual workers some employees also perform at high level and need little or no supervision and appear to enjoy what they are doing, other employees perform only at marginal level and required constant attention and direction and are often absent from their duty posts. The reason for the difference performance are varied and complex, involving the nature of the job, the behaviour of the manager and the characteristics of the workers. The big question is, how can the manager maintain the high performance of the first group and also increase that of those producing marginally, when it comes to those highly productive on the job, to performing with little or no direction and to being a real contribution to the organization. What can only usually say is the cause? Does money count first i.e. the desire to draw bigger pay pocket? Is threat the principal factor? Or is it the sheer enjoyment of being part of the busy co-operative – professional team that makes some employees perform high? It has been recently shown that this variation is caused by the motives of workers, whether the employee or manager are high or low in achievement motivation make a real difference in the effectiveness of financial incentive.
Several studies have shown that offering additional financial reward for doing a task does not make a strongly achievement oriented person to work harder or better. A group of aggressive achievement minded salesmen would certainly be angry if their extra effort were not recognized with much greater financial reward. Yet offering them bonus is not what produce the extra effort, this may seen like a psychological distinction without a difference, but the interpretation of the bonus plan genuinely effect performances.
People with relatively low achievement motivation, on the other hand, will work harder for increased financial rewards, however, does the money got by doing it interest them primarily as a major of accomplishment? Rather, it has other values for them.
This work therefore will attempt to probe into the motivational tools employed by the management of Enugu State transport company limited to motivate it employees. The finding will help to evaluate the problem and prospect of the organisation in the area of motivation and to suggest ways of improvement.
Enugu State transport company limited is a big company and also a strategic one because of the place of transportation in any economy.
The government invested a huge amount of money to set up ENTRACO and therefore, expected reforms from the investment that is why it is a profit – oriented organization. It is only through effective performance of the employees that returns from the investment can be achieved. This is why it is necessary to know how they are being motivated to work and achieve their organisation’s objectives.
First of all, we have to know what literature review is all about?
Literature review, simply defined is an important steep in solving a research problem. It is a step which we cannot skip. The researcher must undertake literature review and should do it by him self/and herself so that he/she will be able to formulate hypothesis or ask research questions because of it importance. It is also a systematic examination of available book, journals, periodical, newspapers and all sort of material with the intention of obtaining and recording information from them which are relevant and useful to the researcher topic or problem under investigation.
The exercise of literature review involves identifying, locating, selecting and recording information obtained from primary and secondary sources which the researcher finds useful and related to his/her research studies.
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