Human Resource Management In The Hotel And Catering Industry (A Case Study Of Royal Palace Hotel Enugu)

The topic of the study is Human Resource Management in Hotel and Catering industry (A case study of Royal Palace Hotel Enugu). The researcher used both the primary and secondary data in the course of the study. The primary data was collected through the instrument of questionnaires and observation. The secondary data was sources through textbooks, journals, magazines and Libraries.

The research design for the study was the survey research. The population of the study was 82 employees of the establishment. The sample size of the study was 63 employees derived using the Yaro Yamani formula for the determination of sample size. A total number of 63 questionnaires were distributed and returned thereby having a hundred percent return rate. The researcher used sample percentage and chi-square as statistical tool for the analysis.

The study revealed that the majority of the workers in this establishment are ignorant on pay determination method which shows that management does not involve workers in the machinery or the mechanics of payment determination. The workers role is reduced to that of a rigid adherence to rules and regulations.
The researcher recommended among others that broad personnel policy study be embraced by employers in the hotel industry.

Title Page i
Certification ii
Dedication iii
Acknowledgement iv
Table of Contents v
List of Tables vi
Abstract vii

1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background of the study 1
1.2 Statement of the problem 4
1.3 Objectives of the Study 5
1.4 Research questions 6
1.5 Research Hypothesis 6
1.6 Significance of the study 7
1.7 Scope and limitations of the study 8
1.8 definition of special terms 8
Reference 10

2.0 Review of related literature 11
2.1 Theoretical framework for the study Over of Human Resources Management 
2.2 Historical background 13
2.2.1 Motivation 13
2.2.2 Reward System 15
2.2.3 Wages and salaries 16
2.2.4 Incentives 17
2.2.5 Fringe benefits 18
2.2.6 Industrial relations 19
2.3 Current literature on theories postulated 21
2.3.1 Maslow‟s need hierarchy theory 21
2.3.2 Expectancy theory of motivation 22
2.3.3 Herzberg‟s Motivation – hygiene 23
References 26

3.0 Research Methodology 28
3.1 Research design 28
3.2 Sources of data 29
3.2.1 Primary data 29
3.2.2 Secondary data 29
3.3 The population of the study 29
3.4 Sample design and determination of sample size 30
3.5 Methods of data collection 31
3.5.1 Questionnaire design, distribution and collection of responses 32
3.5.2 Secondary methods of data collection of responses 32
3.6 Method of data presentation and analysis 32
Reference 34

4.0 Data presentation and analysis 35
4.1 Date  presentation 35
4.1.2 Demographic Characteristics 35
4.1.3 Presentation According to Key Research Question 36
4.2 Analysis and testing of the hypotheses 39

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations 47
5.1 Summary of finding 47
5.2 Conclusions 50
5.3 Recommendation 51
Appendix: Questionnaire 

Table 4.1: Age distribution of respondents Table 4.2: Gender distribution
Table 4.3 Marital status of staff
Table 4.4 Perceived barriers to unionization Table 4.5 Criteria for promotion and advancement
Table 4.6 Number of people that left the hotel in the past year (relevant range) Table 4.7 Management involvement in training and development
Table 4.8 Respondents opinion on whether payment is commensurate with efforts Table 4.9 Observed frequencies for Hypotheses one
Table 4.10 Observed and Expected frequencies for hypotheses one Table 4.11 Observed frequencies for hypotheses two
Table 4.12 Observed and Expected frequencies for hypotheses two Table 4.13 Observed frequencies for hypotheses three
Table 4.14 Observed and expected frequencies for hypotheses three

Since the beginning of recorded time, people have travelled, and during their travels, have needed shelter. This consequently encouraged the springing up of some accommodation in form of inns and small hotels and subsequent larger hospitality suites, to meet such needs. This thus hospitality is said to be the worlds‟ second oldest profession.

Just after the civil war in 1970, there was a virtual absence of hotels and especially, the well known names in the international hotel industry in Nigeria. Not until the late 70‟s, during the oil boom era, did Nigeria start experiencing some growth in her hotel industry. In recent years however, Nigeriahosting of several major international events like the common wealth heads of government meeting (CHOGM), All African games, carnivals, meeting including the visits of two American presidents an other presidents with their entourage, has led to the building of several more hotels in Nigeria, especially in the major cities.

This growth is not restricted to Nigeria alone, example, the American food service industry in 1979 had 110 billion dollars of busing for meals away from home and was infact the third largest industry in the country in terms of gross retail sales, it employs about 6 million people and had average of 125. 42 employees in 1995 and yet still needs many additional employees every year.

Nigeria has since seen many important developments and changes in the relative improvement in the standard of living of a vast majority of working people. These improvements have come about as a result of many different factors including greater national productivity, stronger growth of economy, having more enlightened management and pressures from trade unions.

The contributions made by the hotel and catering industry to this general rise in standard of living are considerable, providing essential and leisure services, employment and wealth creation.

Hotel development in any country is a detailed process, requiring a high level of pre-planning prior to, during and after construction. There is still evidence in many places in Nigeria that this pre-planning has not adequately been carried out, resulting in some hotels that are unable to meet today‟s and tomorrows ever-changing and increasing customer needs, including the fact that demand far outstrips supply, with major cities like Lagos having now shortages. Nevertheless, Tourism, of which the hotel and catering industry is a principal element is said to be a potential growth sector in Nigeria.

The conditions of employment of a large number of the industry‟s staff have not kept peace with those enjoyed by working people elsewhere, in spite of the technical improvements within the catering industry itself. The reasons for the slow rate of improvement in the industry‟s condition of employment are considerable including an understandable reluctance on the part of many proprietors and managers to adjust labor earnings according to improvements in the industry. Another reason could be that trade union movements exert little influence in most sectors of the industry, since moreover most people that make up the industry‟s workforce are people who are not prepared to make a career out of the job.

The working conditions of the industry‟s staff are for most cases unattractive. There are intrinsic problems which are unavoidable such as having to work long evenings and weekends. Other problems however can certainly be removed or reduced by determined management action. Such problems are staff reliance on tips, ignorance of workers on methods of calculating pay and the distribution of service charges, and management‟s reluctance to involve staff in matters that affect their working lives. Management should therefore evolve a way of bringing out the best in these groups of ignored members of our workforce.

In Nigeria, there are many organizations that provide catering services and which by their nature can be termed hotels. It is estimated that there exists about 550 hotels, inns and commercial guest houses in Nigeria by the year 2008 that employs between 10 and 250 people in line with their sizes. It is said that about 418 – 900 people were employed in 2003 worldwide.

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Ugwu, A. (2018). Human Resource Management In The Hotel And Catering Industry (A Case Study Of Royal Palace Hotel Enugu). Afribary. Retrieved from

MLA 8th

Ugwu, Anderson "Human Resource Management In The Hotel And Catering Industry (A Case Study Of Royal Palace Hotel Enugu)" Afribary. Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018, Accessed 21 Apr. 2024.


Ugwu, Anderson . "Human Resource Management In The Hotel And Catering Industry (A Case Study Of Royal Palace Hotel Enugu)". Afribary, Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018. Web. 21 Apr. 2024. < >.


Ugwu, Anderson . "Human Resource Management In The Hotel And Catering Industry (A Case Study Of Royal Palace Hotel Enugu)" Afribary (2018). Accessed April 21, 2024.