Immobilized Enzymes for Industrial Applications

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

1.0      Introduction

1.1      Enzymes

1.2      Classification of Enzymes

1.3      Factors affecting enzymes activities

1.4      Kinetic of Enzymes catalyzed reactions

CHAPTER TWO

2.0      Immobilization process

2.1    Immobilized Enzymes

2.2    Immobilization techniques and support materials

2.3    Inhibition of Enzymes  

2.4    Enzymes Mechanisms

CHAPTER THREE

3.0      Industrial Applications of Immobilized Enzymes

3.1      Immobilized Enzymes in Food Processing

3.2      Immobilized Enzymes in Clinical / Medical Industry

3.3      Immobilized Enzymes in drug design

3.4      Immobilized as Biosensors

3.5      Immobilized Enzymes in the production of Syrups from cornstarch (part of food application)

 

CHAPTER FOUR

Future Role of Enzyme Immobilization

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1    Conclusion

References 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0      INTRODUCTION

The history of enzymes may be regarded as commencing with the work of Dubrunfaut, (1830) who prepared malt extract from germinating barley seeds.  This extract possessed the power of converting starch into sugar.  Therefore, it is imperative to briefly discuss the general facts and concepts of Enzymes before passing to detailed study of the various applications of immobilized enzymes in industries.

1.1    Enzymes: These can be defined as the substances which catalyzing or alter the rate of chemical reactions. All enzymes          are conjugated proteins and usually associated with non – proteins groups.  The catalytic activities depend on the maintenances of their native structure and slight variations may result in significant changes in their activities.  A common feature of all enzymes in the presence of a cleft / depression in the structure which is line mainly with hydrophobic amino acids into which the substrate fixed which is known as the ‘Active site’.  Certain amino acids residues which are concern with either orientation of the concentrate and the ends with the specificity of the enzymes or are involved in the catalyst of the reaction are located in this cleft, those amino acid that are associated with the latter role form the active site of the enzymes and are often located towards its base of this cleft, those amino acid that are associated with the latter role form the active site of the enzyme and are often located towards its base of this cleft.  In most cases, they are ionic or reactive and they include instidine, serine as well as Glutaric and Asphatic acid.  In addition, the Ions from a solution particularly cations may aid either location of substrate of the reaction. (Extracted from fundamentals of the biochemistry  6th Ed. S. ched & Co Ltd. New Delhi. Pg. 334 -348)  

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APA

Frontiers, E. & OLALEKAN, B (2021). Immobilized Enzymes for Industrial Applications. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/immobilized-enzymes-for-industrial-applications

MLA 8th

Frontiers, Edu, and BUKHARI OLALEKAN "Immobilized Enzymes for Industrial Applications" Afribary. Afribary, 17 Dec. 2021, https://afribary.com/works/immobilized-enzymes-for-industrial-applications. Accessed 21 Jan. 2022.

MLA7

Frontiers, Edu, and BUKHARI OLALEKAN . "Immobilized Enzymes for Industrial Applications". Afribary, Afribary, 17 Dec. 2021. Web. 21 Jan. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/immobilized-enzymes-for-industrial-applications >.

Chicago

Frontiers, Edu and OLALEKAN, BUKHARI . "Immobilized Enzymes for Industrial Applications" Afribary (2021). Accessed January 21, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/immobilized-enzymes-for-industrial-applications