Inorganic Pollutants in Drinking Water of South Western Uganda: Implications On Water Safety and Cancer Risks for Ugandans

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION ............................................................................................................................ II

APPROVAL ................................................................................................................................... H

DEDICATION .............................................................................................................................. III

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .......................................................................................................... IV

TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................................................... V

LIST OFT ABLES ........................................................................................................................ IX

LIST OF FIGURES ...................................................................................................................... IX

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ........................................................................................................ X

ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................................. XI

CHAPTER ONE ............................................................................................................................. I

1.0 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... I

1.1 BACKGROUND ................................................................................................................... 1

1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT ...................................................................................................... 2

1.3 GENERAL OBJECTIVE ............................................................................................................. 2

1.4 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES ........................................................................................................ 2

1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION ........................................................................................................ 2

1.6 JUSTIFICATION .................................................................................................................. 3

CHAPTER TWO ............................................................................................................................ 4

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW .................................................................................................... 4

2.1 HEAVYMETALS!NWATER ............................................................................................... 4

2.2 HEAVY METALS IN ENVIRONMENT ................................................................................... 4

2.3 TOXIC EFFECTS OF HEAVY METALS TO MAN AND RECOMMENDED LEVELS ..................... 4

v

2.3.1 Arsenic in Drinking Water ........................................................................................ 5

2.3.1.1 Health effects of Arsenic ...................................................................................... 5

2.3 .1.2 Regulatmy limits .................................................................................................. 6

2.3.3 Chromimn in Drinking Water ................................................................................... 6

2.3.3.1 Health effects of Chromium ................................................................................. 6

2.3.3.2 Regulatory limits ofChromium ........................................................................... 7

2.3.4 Cadmium .................................................................................................................. 7

2.3.4.1 Health effects of Cadmium .................................................................................. 7

2.3.4.2 Regulatory limits of Cadmium ............................................................................. 7

2.3.5 Lead ........................................................................................................................... 7

2.3.5.1 Health effects of Lead .......................................................................................... 8

2.3 .5 .2 Regulatory limits of Lead ..................................................................................... 8

2.3 .6 Selenium ................................................................................................................... 8

2.3.6. 1 Health effects of Selenium ................................................................................... 8

2.3 .6.2 Regulatmy limits of Selenium .............................................................................. 9

2.3. 7 Silver ......................................................................................................................... 9

2.3. 7.1 Health effects of Silver. ........................................................................................ 9

2.3. 7.2 Regulatmy limits of Silver ................................................................................. I 0

2.4 BIOACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METALS IN FOOD CHAIN ............................................... l 0

2.5 GENERAL INTEGRATION ON LITERATURE SEARCH .......................................................... 12

CHAPTER THREE ...................................................................................................................... 13

3.0 METHODOLOGY ............................................................................................................ 13

3. I STUDY DESIGN ................................................................................................................ 13

3.2 STUDY AREA''' ..... ""'"' .... ''.'' .... ' ... "'''"".' ...... "".""'''"' ..... """''''''" .. '"""''''"" ... '"''""'' 13

VI

3.3 SAMPLING METHOD ........................................................................................................ 13

3.4 SAMPLE SIZE DETERMINATION ....................................................................................... 13

3.4. I INCLUSION CRITERIA ....................................................................................................... 13

3.4.2 Exclusion Criteria ................................................................................................... 13

3.5 DATA COLLECTION ......................................................................................................... 14

3.5.1 Laboratory analysis ................................................................................................. 14

3.5.2 Assessment of water safety against international reference standards ................... 14

3.5.3 Detennination of the estimated daily intake ........................................................... 15

3.5.4 Detennination of the non-cancer risk associated with drinking water in Uganda .. 15

3.5.5 Determination of the incremental lifetime cancer risk associated with drinking

water amongst Ugandans ....................................................................................................... I6

3.5.6 Spatial map on safe water sources in study area ..................................................... 16

3.6 STATISTICALANALYSIS ................................................................................................... 16

3.7 ETHICALCONSIDERATIONS .............................................................................................. I7

3.8 AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION ..................................................................................... I 7

CHAPTER FOUR ......................................................................................................................... 18

4.0 RESULTS INTERPRETATION ....................................................................................... I8

4.1 LEVELS OF INORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM DIFFERENT WATER SOURCES ........................ I 8

4.2 SAFETY OF DRINKING WATER IN SOUTH WESTERN UGANDA ............................................ I 9

4.3 LEVELS OF INORGANIC POLLUTANTS CONSUMED DAILY IN DRINKING WATER BY

UGANDANS ................................................................................................................................ 20

4.4 NON CANCER HEALTH HAZARDS ASSOCIATED WITH DRINKING WATER AMONGST

UGANDANS ................................................................................................................................ 22

Vll

4.5 INCREMENTAL LIFETIME CANCER RISK AS SOCIA TED WITH DRINKING WATER CONSUMED

BY UGANDANS ........................................................................................................................... 24

CHAPTER FIVE .......................................................................................................................... 27

5.0 DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ..................................... 27

5.1 DISCUSSION ................................................................................................................ 27

5.2 CONCLUSION .............................................................................................................. 30

5.3 RECOMMENDATION ................................................................................................. 30

REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................. 3 I

ABSTRACT Background: There is a scarcity of infmmation on the quality of safe drinking water for the attainment of Goal 6 of the SDGs. The study aimed to determine concentrations of inorganic compounds, estimated daily intake (EDI), target hazard quotient (THQ), hazard index (HI), incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) and identify safe drinking water source points in southwestem Uganda. Methods: This was an observational study in which 40 drinking water samples were collected from geo-referenced boreholes, springs, open wells, bottled and taps within Bushenyi district of southwestem Uganda. Water samples were analyzed for Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd) and Chromium (Cr) levels using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Water safety measmes (ED!, HI, and ILCR) were established for each water source and compared with local and international water pennissible standards for each analyte. A spatial map was drawn using qGIS® and analysis of quantitative data was done using MS Excel20 13 at 95% significance. Results: Fe was the primary water pollutant in the order of open well> borehole> tap> spring> bottled water. This was followed by Zn levels in the order of tap > bottled > spring > borehole > open well. All compounds were safe by international standards except Pb showing a need to install Pb filters in drinking water in Uganda. The ED I was similar for water consumed from sp1ing, bottled and tap sources for Fe and Znlevels and no differences were found in children and adults (P > 0.05). Fuiihermore, the HI showed an absence of non-carcinogenic risk associated although the ILCR was higher in adults than children (P < 0.05) due to tl1e very high Zn concentrations. Conclusion: Borehole water was the most recommended water source showing a need for increased water filtration in Uganda.

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APA

Frontiers, E. & KAMUGISHA, M (2022). Inorganic Pollutants in Drinking Water of South Western Uganda: Implications On Water Safety and Cancer Risks for Ugandans. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/inorganic-pollutants-in-drinking-water-of-south-western-uganda-implications-on-water-safety-and-cancer-risks-for-ugandans

MLA 8th

Frontiers, Edu, and MUGISHA KAMUGISHA "Inorganic Pollutants in Drinking Water of South Western Uganda: Implications On Water Safety and Cancer Risks for Ugandans" Afribary. Afribary, 22 Aug. 2022, https://afribary.com/works/inorganic-pollutants-in-drinking-water-of-south-western-uganda-implications-on-water-safety-and-cancer-risks-for-ugandans. Accessed 28 Sep. 2022.

MLA7

Frontiers, Edu, and MUGISHA KAMUGISHA . "Inorganic Pollutants in Drinking Water of South Western Uganda: Implications On Water Safety and Cancer Risks for Ugandans". Afribary, Afribary, 22 Aug. 2022. Web. 28 Sep. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/inorganic-pollutants-in-drinking-water-of-south-western-uganda-implications-on-water-safety-and-cancer-risks-for-ugandans >.

Chicago

Frontiers, Edu and KAMUGISHA, MUGISHA . "Inorganic Pollutants in Drinking Water of South Western Uganda: Implications On Water Safety and Cancer Risks for Ugandans" Afribary (2022). Accessed September 28, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/inorganic-pollutants-in-drinking-water-of-south-western-uganda-implications-on-water-safety-and-cancer-risks-for-ugandans