IVERMECTIN: AN ENDECTOCIDE

Oscar Bruno Okeke Oraeki 115 PAGES (31526 WORDS) Seminar
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ABSTRACT

 

Ivermectin (IVM), a dihydro derivative of avermectin (AVM), originating solely from the fermentation products of Streptomyces avermitilis had an immeasurably beneficial impact in improving the lives and welfare of billions of people worldwide. Originally introduced as a veterinary drug, it was quickly discovered to be ideal in combating two of the world’s most devastating and disfiguring diseases; onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) which has plagued the world’s poor throughout the tropics for centuries. Following its approval for human use in 1987, Merck & Co. established a worldwide program to donate IVM as Mectizan® to treat onchocerciasis (river blindness). Building on the successful implementation of the river blindness program, in 1998 Merck & Co. expanded its commitment to include donating Mectizan® for LF. It is now being used as a tool in campaigns to eliminate both diseases globally and has also been used to successfully overcome several other human diseases. IVM is frequently used in veterinary and human medicine due to its broad spectrum of activity, high efficacy and wide margin of safety. In humans, IVM is used for the treatment of various endo- and ecto-parasitic diseases like strongyloidiasis, cutaneous larva migrans, filariasis, scabies and lice infestations. New uses for it are continually being found. Of particular interest is its potential as an additional vector control tool for malaria. This paper looks in-depth at IVM, a drug that is active against endo- and ecto-parasites of humans and animals.

TABLE OF CONTENT
CERTIFICATION…………………………………………………………………i
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT…………………………………………………………ii
DEDICATION……………………………………………………………………. iii
TABLE OF CONTENT…………………………………………………………... iv
LIST OF ABREVIATIONS……………………………………………………….vi
ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………………. viii
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………...1
CHAPTER TWO
DISCOVERY AND DEVELOPMENT OF IVERMECTIN…………………...5
2.1. History and Discovery of Ivermectin………………………………………….5
2.2. Development of Ivermectin…………………………………………………....8
2.2.1. Chemical Composition of Ivermectin………………………………..8
2.2.2. Production and Synthesis of Ivermectin…………………………….10
CHAPTER THREE
IVERMECTIN IN THE TREATMENT OF HUMAN DISEASES…………..13
3.1. Advent of Ivermectin for Human Use………………………………………...13
3.2. Dosage and Efficacy of Ivermectin in the Treatment of Human Diseases……20
3.3. Pharmacokinetics of Ivermectin………………………………………………30
3.4. Mode of Action of Ivermectin………………………………………………...37
3.5. Adverse Effects of Drug Use………………………………………………….41
CHAPTER FOUR
TOXICITY AND DRUG RESISTANCE……………………………………….46
4.1. Toxicity of Ivermectin………………………………………………………...46
4.2. Drug Resistance……………………………………………………………….50
iv
CHAPTER FIVE
NEW HORIZONS IN THE USE OF IVERMECTIN…………………………...54
5.1. Control of Malaria and Other Mosquito-Borne Parasitoses………………….....54
5.2. Control of Trypanosomiasis…………………………………………………….61
5.3. Control of Leishmaniasis………………………………………………………. 62
5.4. Control of other Parasitic Infections/Infestations……………………………….63
5.5. Antiviral Potency………………………………………………………………..65
5.6. Antibacterial Potency……………………………………………………………66
5.7. Anticancer Agent………………………………………………………………..67
5.8. Anti-inflammatory Agent………………………………………………………..68
5.9. Anti-Diabetic Agent……………………………………………………………..68
CHAPTER SIX
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION………………………………………………....69
REFERENCES……………………………………………………………………....71

 

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APA

Oscar Bruno, O (2020). IVERMECTIN: AN ENDECTOCIDE. Afribary.com: Retrieved July 08, 2020, from https://afribary.com/works/ivermectin-today-o

MLA 8th

Okeke Oraeki, Oscar Bruno. "IVERMECTIN: AN ENDECTOCIDE" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 24 Jan. 2020, https://afribary.com/works/ivermectin-today-o . Accessed 08 Jul. 2020.

MLA7

Okeke Oraeki, Oscar Bruno. "IVERMECTIN: AN ENDECTOCIDE". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 24 Jan. 2020. Web. 08 Jul. 2020. < https://afribary.com/works/ivermectin-today-o >.

Chicago

Okeke Oraeki, Oscar Bruno. "IVERMECTIN: AN ENDECTOCIDE" Afribary.com (2020). Accessed July 08, 2020. https://afribary.com/works/ivermectin-today-o