Knowledge attitude and practice of dietary habits as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in adolescents of surulere local government Lagos Nigeria

Tomilola Olayemi 75 PAGES (15604 WORDS) Project
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CHAPTER  ONE                                               

 INTRODUCTION OVERVIEW

Rapid  changes  in  demography  and  social  and  economic  development  play  an  important  role  in  the  emergence  of  noncommunicable  diseases  (NCDs)  as  a  public  health  problem.1 The  growing  burden  of  NCDs  represents  a  major  challenge,  not  only  for  developed  countries  but  also  for developing  countries. The  risk  factors  underlying  major  NCDs  (heart disease,  stroke,  diabetes, cancer  and  respiratory disease)  have  been  well  documented  and  are  well known.2 Cardiovascular  diseases   (CVDs)  is   a  major   cause  of   disability  and   premature  death  throughout   the  world.  The  underlying  pathology  is  atherosclerosis,  which  develops  over  many  years and  is  usually  advanced  by  the  time  symptoms  occur,  generally  in  middle  age.  Acute coronary  events  (heart  attacks)  and  cerebrovascular  events  (strokes)  frequently  occur suddenly,  and  are  often  fatal  before  medical  care  can  be  given.  Risk  factor  modification can  reduce  clinical  events  and  premature  death  in  people  with  established  cardiovascular disease  as  well  as  in  those  who  are  at  high  cardiovascular  risk  due  to  one  or  more  risk factors.3  According  to  World  Health  Organization  (WHO)  data,  17.5  millions  of  death  each  year are  due to CVD. Of  these, 7.6  million  are  attributed  to  coronary heart disease(CHD)  and  5.7 million  to  stroke.4  Although  cardiovascular  diseases  typically  occur  in  middle  age  or  later,  risk  factors  are determined  to  a  great  extent  by  behaviors'  learnt  in  childhood  and  continued  into  adulthood, such  as  dietary  habits  and  smoking.  Throughout  the  world,  these  risks  are  starting  to  appear earlier.5 Findings  of  various  studies  worldwide  suggested  that  adolescents  lacked  knowledge  

2  regarding the  risk  of  cardiovascular  diseases  and  did  not  perceive  themselves  at  risk  for  cardiovascular diseases.6 Adolescence  is  a  life  phase  where  nutrient  intake  is  particularly  important  and  may  also change  because  of  hormonal,  cognitive,  and  emotional  changes  and  an  accelerating  growth rate.7 Since  adolescents  are  becoming  less  dependent  on  the  food  choices  and  purchases  of their  parents,  dietary  habits  may  change  in  this  stage  of  life.8,9  Nutrition  early  in  life  has an  impact  on  long  term  health,  especially  concerning  CVDs.10  This  is  probably  related  to the  fact  that  food  and  taste  preferences  develop  during  childhood  and  adolescence  and  often  persist  into  adulthood.11 The  role  of  diet  is  crucial  in  the  development  and  prevention  of  cardiovascular  disease.  Research  makes  it  clear  that  abnormal  blood  lipid  (fat)  levels  have  a  strong  correlation with  the  risk  of  coronary  artery  disease,  heart attack  and  coronary  death.  In  turn,  abnormal blood  lipids  are  related  to  what  you  eat.  A  diet  high  in  saturated  fats  (e.g. cheese)  and trans   fats    leads    to   high   levels   of     cholesterol.   Saturated   fats   are   found   in   animal products.   Trans  fats   are  oils  that have  been  hydrogenated  to  turn  them  into  semi-hard fats. Hydrogenated  fat  is  found  in  processed  food.  Saturated  and  trans  fats  raise  cholesterol levels  in  the  blood,  which  in  turn  can  lead  to  atherosclerosis.28  Atherosclerosis  are  fatty deposits  that  can  clog  arteries. These  buildups  are  called  plaque. They’re  made  of  cholesterol, fatty  substances,  cellular  waste  products,  calcium  and  fibrin (a  clotting  material in the blood).15

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APA

Tomilola, O (2019). Knowledge attitude and practice of dietary habits as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in adolescents of surulere local government Lagos Nigeria. Afribary.com: Retrieved September 22, 2019, from https://afribary.com/works/knowledge-attitude-and-practice-of-dietary-habits-as-a-risk-factor-for-cardiovascular-disease-in-adolescents-of-surulere-local-government-lagos-nigeria

MLA 8th

Olayemi, Tomilola. "Knowledge attitude and practice of dietary habits as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in adolescents of surulere local government Lagos Nigeria" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 06 Jul. 2019, https://afribary.com/works/knowledge-attitude-and-practice-of-dietary-habits-as-a-risk-factor-for-cardiovascular-disease-in-adolescents-of-surulere-local-government-lagos-nigeria . Accessed 22 Sep. 2019.

MLA7

Olayemi, Tomilola. "Knowledge attitude and practice of dietary habits as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in adolescents of surulere local government Lagos Nigeria". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 06 Jul. 2019. Web. 22 Sep. 2019. < https://afribary.com/works/knowledge-attitude-and-practice-of-dietary-habits-as-a-risk-factor-for-cardiovascular-disease-in-adolescents-of-surulere-local-government-lagos-nigeria >.

Chicago

Olayemi, Tomilola. "Knowledge attitude and practice of dietary habits as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in adolescents of surulere local government Lagos Nigeria" Afribary.com (2019). Accessed September 22, 2019. https://afribary.com/works/knowledge-attitude-and-practice-of-dietary-habits-as-a-risk-factor-for-cardiovascular-disease-in-adolescents-of-surulere-local-government-lagos-nigeria