Research Papers/Topics in Medicine And Surgery

Sleep Disturbances After Traumatic Brain Injury

Traumatic brain injury is leading cause of sleep disturbance with patient having headache, nausea, vomiting, insomnia, We find most of patient having sleeping disturbance because of internal bleeding affect the major part in brain, which leads to decrease in amount of hormone.A moderate traumatic brain injury is defined as an injury that results in a loss of consciousness that lasts between 30 minutes and six hours. Severe TBI is one that lasts more than six ...

Diagnostic and Treatment Approach of Complex Sleep Apnea Syndrome (ComSAS) Case Presenting with History of Snoring, Daytime Sleepiness, and Falling Asleep at Traffic Light

Prevalence of complex sleep apnea syndrome (ComSAS) is growing after its true characterization and clinical presentation, which enhances an appropriate diagnostic approach for its better treatment and outcome. Complex sleep apnea is a form of sleep-disordered breathing in which patients have respiratory control dysfunction and upper airway obstruction; it often clinically presents as central sleep apnea (CSA) and is mostly seen in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients during the initial phas...

Traditional Chinese Medicine in Asthma – a Systematic Review of their Mechanism of Actions

Introduction: Asthma is a chronic respiratory condition that results in the inflammation and narrowing of airways. The lack of curative therapies for asthma has led to an increased use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) worldwide. This review aims to evaluate the mechanism of action (MOA) of TCM for used for treatment of asthma. Methods: A systematic review was conducted in Medline®, Embase®, CENTRAL®, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI®) and WanFang® for TCM used for asthm...

The Assessment of The Effectiveness of Magnesium Sulphate in The Management of Pre-Eclampsia

1.0. INTRODUCTIONOVERVIEW OR BACKGROUND OF THE STUDYPre-eclampsia is defined as hypertension accompanied by proteinuria, usually occurs during the second half of pregnancy and causes complications in 20-80% of pregnancies. It is a hypertensive disorder occurring usually often 20 weeks of gestation. Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are not distinct disorder but the manifestation of spectrum of clinical symptoms of the same condition. In pre-eclmpsia, hypertension and protein urea are present and wh...

Safe Anaesthesia For the Elderly Patients

ANAESTHESIA FOR THE ELDERLY PATIENTS INTRODUCTION According to Kumar P. (2008,) geriatric patients are more sensitive to anaesthetic agents. Less medication is usually required to achieve a desired clinical effect, and drug effect is often prolonged. The most important outcome and overall objective of preoperative care of geriatric population, is to speed recovery and avoid functional decline. An important principle must be kept in mind when dealing with an elderly patient. Aging involves a p...

Coarctation Of The Aorta

COARCTATION OF THE AORTAINTRODUCTIONCoarctation of the aorta are also called aortic narrowing is a congenital condition where by the aorta is narrow, usually in the area where the ductus arteriosus become ligamantum arteriosum after regression. Coarctation are common in aortic arch. The arch may be small in babies with coarctation. Other heart defects may also occur when coarctation is presents, typically occurring on the left side of the heart. When a patient has coartation, the left ventric...

Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice Towards Meningitis Prevention and Control Among Health Care Personnel

INTRODUCTION1.1 Background to the StudyMeningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and the spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges. Ginsberg, (2012). The most common symptoms are fever, headache, and neck stiffness (CDC. 2014). Other symptoms include confusion or altered consciousness, vomiting, and an inability to tolerate light or loud noises. (CDC. 2016) . Young children often exhibit only nonspecific symptoms, such as irritability, drowsiness...

BLOOD GLUCOSE AND URINALYSIS IN THE THREE TRIMESTERS OF PREGNANCY

ABSTRACTPregnancy is associated with significant physiologic and anatomic changes which occur at different rates throughout the body to provide a good upshot for both mother and foetus. This study aimed at determining the changes in the blood glucose levels in the three trimeers of pregnancy and assessing the changes in the urine constituents with respect to the blood glucose status. 90 pregnant women, 30 for each trimester were used and 30 non pregnant, age-matched subjects were used as the ...

THE PHYSIOLOGY OF BREASTFEEDING AND MILK LET DOWN

INTRODUCTIONBreast feeding is the act of feeding an infant or a young child with breast milk directly from the female human breasts (Lauralee, 2013).The female reproductive system supports the new being from the moment of conception through gestation and continues to nourish it during its early life outside the supportive uterine environment. During gestation, under the influence of the hormonal environment present, the mammary glands  develop the internal glandular structure and function ne...

Knowledge attitude and practice of dietary habits as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in adolescents of surulere local government Lagos Nigeria

CHAPTER  ONE                                                 INTRODUCTION OVERVIEW Rapid  changes  in  demography  and  social  and  economic  development  play  an  important  role  in  the  emergence  of  noncommunicable  diseases  (NCDs)  as  a  public&n...

SYSTEM Research note on: the association of lack of adequate allocation concealment with effect-size overestimation

OBJECTIVE: To test the null hypothesis that clinical dental trials with adequate random sequence generation together with adequate allocation concealment do not differ in their effect size from trials lacking adequate concealment.STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: The oral health section of the Cochrane database was searched online until 20 July 2011. All listed entries, except reviews in protocol stage and duplications, were included. Included systematic reviews were accepted for data ...

SYSTEM Research note on: Observed differences between dichotomous outcome measures

CONTEXT: The dichotomous outcome of a clinical intervention may be defined as success versus failure and subsequently expressed in the number of intervention successes and failures. Success and failure numbers of two clinical interventions may be compared and the resulting effect estimate expressed either as Risk ratio (RR) or Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The expression of effect estimates in Risk ratio appears to be easier to interpret. Also, Risk r...

SYSTEM Research note on: Initial observations of diagnostic accuracy concerning quantitative testing for selection bias in RCTs - II

CONTEXT: Selection bias interferes with the internal validity of clinical trials and leads to favoring one clinical outcome over another. Random sequence generation and allocation concealment of such sequence have been proposed to limit the risk of selection bias. However, selection bias can be introduced based on knowledge of the directly observed random sequence when allocation concealment is subverted. Such subversion may statistically be detected in randomised control ...

SYSTEM Research note on: An attempt to quantify degrees of beliefs concerning the precision and internal validity of systematic review conclusions

CONTEXT: Systematic review evidence provides best justification for specific beliefs regarding clinical interventions. The degree of such belief depends on the precision and internal validity of the evidence. While precision is often achieved on basis of quantification and statistical analysis, the (internal) validity of the evidence is appraised through judgement of the risk for several known biases. Against the background of the subsequent results, a conclusion is formul...

SYSTEM Research note on: Using formal logic for illustrating coherence of systematic review evidence

CONTEXT: Clinical knowledge, as any other type of knowledge, can be regarded as justified belief. The justification of belief follows two cognitive strategies: coherence of logic and correspondence of facts.PROBLEM: Coherence strategy has been traditionally favoured in the justification of beliefs concerning medical interventions throughout the centuries and is today still preferred by many clinicians as providing “logical sense” for or against the application of therapies,...

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