Levels and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in selected irrigated urban agricultural soils in Accra, Ghana

Collins Tay 12 PAGES (7097 WORDS) Article
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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous organic pollutants in urban environments
including urban soils. Elevated concentrations of PAHs in urban soils are caused by incomplete combustion of petroleum and coal. This study assesses 16 individual PAH compounds in a total of 112 surficial soil samples. The objective was to assess and compare the levels of contamination as well as examine the main sources of PAHs in four urban agricultural soils using molecular ratios of some specific hydrocarbons. The study showed that PAH levels in soil ranged from 1.23 ng/kg in soil collected from Dzorwulu to 2.95 ng/kg in soil collected from Ghana Broadcasting Cooperation (GBC) vegetable irrigation site. Of the total PAHs, the more water soluble PAHs (2–4 rings), which tend to be concentrated in the vapour phase were found to dominate the soils. The percentage dominance were Dzorwulu (52.8 %), Marine Drive (62.5 %), CSIR (53.2 %) and GBC (49.2 %). However, there were significant levels of the more carcinogenic PAHs (5–6 rings) present with percentages as 47.1, 37.5 46.8 and 50.8 % for Dzorwulu, Marine Drive, CSIR and GBC vegetable irrigation sites, respectively, and therefore, may impact negatively on public health. Based on the classification by the Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation
in Pulawy, Poland, urban soils in Accra could be classified as contaminated to different levels. Molecular ratios of Flu/pyr and PA/Ant were calculated to determine the main sources of PAHs. Results showed that PAHs could originate mainly from incomplete combustion of petroleum products, especially from atmospheric fallout from automobile exhausts. The study further showed that B(a)P concentration of 0.05 ng/kg in soil from GBC urban vegetable irrigation site requires immediate clean-up exercise and monitoring to mitigate human health impact.

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APA

Collins, T (2019). Levels and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in selected irrigated urban agricultural soils in Accra, Ghana. Afribary.com: Retrieved February 27, 2021, from https://afribary.com/works/levels-and-sources-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-in-selected-irrigated-urban-agricultural-soils-in-accra-ghana

MLA 8th

Tay, Collins. "Levels and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in selected irrigated urban agricultural soils in Accra, Ghana" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 24 Jun. 2019, https://afribary.com/works/levels-and-sources-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-in-selected-irrigated-urban-agricultural-soils-in-accra-ghana . Accessed 27 Feb. 2021.

MLA7

Tay, Collins. "Levels and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in selected irrigated urban agricultural soils in Accra, Ghana". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 24 Jun. 2019. Web. 27 Feb. 2021. < https://afribary.com/works/levels-and-sources-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-in-selected-irrigated-urban-agricultural-soils-in-accra-ghana >.

Chicago

Tay, Collins. "Levels and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in selected irrigated urban agricultural soils in Accra, Ghana" Afribary.com (2019). Accessed February 27, 2021. https://afribary.com/works/levels-and-sources-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-in-selected-irrigated-urban-agricultural-soils-in-accra-ghana