MOBILITY AND BORDER CONTROL PRACTICES IN GHANA: A CASE STUDY OF PAGA BORDER POST

ABSTRACT

Issues of international borders have been of security concern to governments particularly, in the post 9/11 era. The securitization discourse has taken centre stage as governments move towards tightening their border controls against ‘perceived threats’ such as terrorism.

Many African countries face the difficult task of securing their borders. Numerous challenges encountered in this regard means that borders have become transnational crime zones. In recent times, transnational security threats and terrorist acts are increasingly gaining grounds in the West African sub-Region and Ghana being part of the Region is at risk of being affected. It has therefore become imperative to examine how cross-border mobility is controlled in Ghana with emphasis on Paga border post with a view of assessing how secured the country’s borders are.

The study employed a mixed method approach. A sample size of 92 Immigration officers within the various units of GIS were selected through multistage sampling procedure. Instruments used for the study were structured questionnaires and in-depth interviews. The quantitative data were analysed using SPSS and the qualitative through the use of thematic analysis. The results revealed that in controlling movements across the borders, required document is passport (80.4%), followed by ECOWAS card. Again, passport is the main document examined during security checks, use of equipment/gadgets for checking people who cross the border is not a practice. Intense patrolling and blocking of routes provide effective ways of managing illegal crossings. The findings also indicated that major nationals who cross the border post frequently are ECOWAS citizens other than Ghanaians with business, visit and tourism as perceived purposes. Activities engage in by these nationals are trading in general goods and motor/bicycle spare parts. Lack of modern equipment for work and logistical constraints are the main challenges encountered in controlling movements across the border. With respect to potential transnational security threats, terrorism and drug/arm trafficking emerged as prominent.

The study concludes that the challenges Immigration officials encounter in controlling cross-border movement, negate their ability to maintain security and expose the country to transnational security threats/crimes. Consequently, Ghana’s borders cannot be said to be secured. In light of this, it is recommended that the GIS be adequately resourced to effectively discharge its mandate of providing security at the borders. This may be done by way of provision of modern equipment, new facilities and logistics (vehicles, communication gadgets, sensors, surveillance cameras etc.).

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APA

QUARTEY, E (2021). MOBILITY AND BORDER CONTROL PRACTICES IN GHANA: A CASE STUDY OF PAGA BORDER POST. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/mobility-and-border-control-practices-in-ghana-a-case-study-of-paga-border-post

MLA 8th

QUARTEY, ERIC "MOBILITY AND BORDER CONTROL PRACTICES IN GHANA: A CASE STUDY OF PAGA BORDER POST" Afribary. Afribary, 08 Mar. 2021, https://afribary.com/works/mobility-and-border-control-practices-in-ghana-a-case-study-of-paga-border-post. Accessed 18 Jul. 2024.

MLA7

QUARTEY, ERIC . "MOBILITY AND BORDER CONTROL PRACTICES IN GHANA: A CASE STUDY OF PAGA BORDER POST". Afribary, Afribary, 08 Mar. 2021. Web. 18 Jul. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/mobility-and-border-control-practices-in-ghana-a-case-study-of-paga-border-post >.

Chicago

QUARTEY, ERIC . "MOBILITY AND BORDER CONTROL PRACTICES IN GHANA: A CASE STUDY OF PAGA BORDER POST" Afribary (2021). Accessed July 18, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/mobility-and-border-control-practices-in-ghana-a-case-study-of-paga-border-post